Digital Dictionary of Buddhism: English Terms Index [updated: 6/28/2007]

9-11 am 巳時

a koṭī of nayutas 萬億那由他

a man 丈夫

a year 年臘

a young Brahman 年少淨行


abandon again 復還棄捨

abandon desire 離欲

abandon discriminations and return to one's original nature 去情顯性

abandon evil and cultivate goodness 廢惡修善

abandoning 令捨

abandoning of afflictions already generated 已生惡令滅

abbatial acolyte 室的侍者

abbot 上手, 上方, 主首, 和尚, 方丈, 院主

abbot's robe 紅衣


abide contentedly in 喜樂安住

abide in that mental state 住其心

abide in the center 中住

abide without changing 住不變

abides here 住於此

abides in indifference 無顧戀住

abides in the dharma 住內法

abiding afflictions 住煩惱

abiding as a phenomenon 住法

abiding cognition of the most excellent profound dharma 最勝妙法住智

abiding comfortably in the manifest world 現法樂

abiding in correct wisdom 正知而住

abiding in goodness 善宿

abiding in hardship 住艱辛

abiding in non-frivolity 無放逸住

abiding in one's seed nature 住種性

abiding in present manifestation 住現在前

abiding in the certainty of attaining enlightenment 住正定聚

abiding in the fruit 住果

abiding in the intermediate state 住在中有

abiding in this stage 住此住中

abiding joyfully in the manifest world 現法喜樂住, 現法安樂住

abiding mind 住心

abiding production 住生

abiding retrogression 住退

abiding within the determined class of beings 住於正定之聚

ablative case 從格

able to achieve consummate nirvāṇa 能般涅槃

able to cease 能除滅

able to enter 得入

able to establish 得成

able to fully... 能究竟

able to quickly attain 便能獲得

able to remove 得除滅

able to remove their transgressions according to the rules of confession 如法悔除

able to skillfully accord with 善能隨順

able to skillfully expound 善能宣說

able to teach to others as one wishes 隨其所欲能爲他說

ably smites down 善能摧伏

abode 住處

abode of consecration 灌頂住

abode of correct mind 正心住

abode of cultivation 修住

abode of Indra 帝居

abode of nurturing 治地住

abode of one truth 一法句

abode of practice 修行住

abode of producing virtues 生貴住

abode of purity and impurity 雜淸淨住

abode of superior insight that is associated with the cessation of dependently-arisen transmigration 緣起流轉止息相應增上慧住

abode of the dharma-prince 法王子住

abode of the tathāgata 如來室

abode of the true child 童眞住

abode stage of practice 行住

abodes of three kinds of superior insight 三種增上慧住

about 阿毘

above-explained 上所說

absence in similar instances and absence in dissimilar instances 同品非有異品非有

absence in similar instances, both presence and absence in dissimilar instances 同品非有異品有非有

absence in similar instances, presence in dissimilar instances 同品非有異品有

absence of a set doctrine 無定法

absence of hindrance 虛空無爲

absence of individual existence 無人

absence of intentional thought 無意

absentmindedness 放心

absolute realm 物外

absolute truth 眞諦, 第一義諦

absolutely pure 究竟淸淨

absorption 三摩帝, 三摩底

absorption of mindfulness of the buddha 念佛三昧

abstention from covetousness 不貪欲

abstention from eating at inappropriate times 不非時食

abstention from eating meat 不食肉, 斷肉

abstention from erroneous views 不邪見

abstention from malice 不瞋恚

abstention from self-adornment with scents or cosmetics 不著香華鬘不香塗身

abstention from sexual indulgence 不淫

abstention from speaking of the faults of members of the saṅgha 不說四衆過罪戒

abstention from the consumption of alcohol 不飮酒

abstinence from taking life 不殺生

abstinence hall 齋堂

abundance 隆盛

abundance of ill fortune 餘殃

abundant afflictions 煩惱多

abundant good fortune 餘慶

abundantly virtuous 厚德


accept an offering 受施


accepted by both parties 共許

acclamation of the scriptural teaching 顯揚聖教

accompanied 倶行

accompanied by a smile (?) 含笑爲先

accompanied by neither pleasure nor pain 不苦不樂倶行

accompanied by pleasure 樂倶行

accompany through the night 伴夜, 伴靈

accomplish both together 倶成就

accomplish rapidly 速成

accomplished 已成

accomplished or not accomplished 遂不遂

accomplishment of buddhahood in the three times 三世成佛

accomplishment of good works 善修事業

accord with and enter 隨入

accord with conditions 隨緣

according to (various types) 隨彼彼色類

according to 隨方

according to each situation 隨彼彼處

according to experience 隨感

according to intention 隨義

according to law or rule 由法

according to one's ability 隨分, 隨能

according to one's ability and strength 隨能隨力

according to one's desire 隨所樂, 隨所欲

according to one's power 隨力

according to one's wish 隨所願心

according to prayer 隨求

according to reality 由法爾

according to rule 法爾

according to that which... 隨所

according to the dharma 如法

according to the place circumstances of birth 隨所生處

according to the rules 法然

according to the rules of confession 如法悔

according to the scriptural teaching 如契經說

according to the sūtra(s) 如經

according to the wisdom and insight as described in the Vinaya-piṭaka 隨律經

according with faculties 隨機

according with phenomena 隨事

accordingly contemplate 隨觀

accounts of the past lives of the disciples of the Buddha 伊帝目多伽

accounts officer 庫頭

accumulated blessings 福聚

accumulation 三牟提耶, 資糧

accumulation from present events 現法資糧

accumulation from prior lives 先世資糧

accurate perception 眞現量

accurately and thoroughly understand causes 如實知因

accurately explain 眞實說

accurately knows one's own mind 如實知自心

accurately seeing the mundane world 世間正見

accurately understands 如理通達

accurately witness 如實證

accuse others of their faults 說過

accuse the four groups of Buddhist practitioners of faults 說四衆過


achieve enlightenment 得佛

achieve the result 至果

achieve, carry out, accomplish 遂成

achieves perfect enlightenment 成無上覺

achieving the body of Vairocana through the fivefold meditation 五法成身, 五相成身, 五相成身觀, 五轉成身

acknowledge existence 許有

acolyte 侍者

acquire the name of (true bodhisattva, etc.) 得名爲

acquired the intention 已得意

acquires shining purity 得明淨

action 行業

action tantra 作續

actions experienced as neither happiness nor suffering 不苦不樂受業

activation of antidotes 對治生

activation of the mind 心機

active bondages 現纏

active seeds 現行種子

active, but without awareness 行不明了

activities in the manifest world 世間行

activities in the three realms 三界業

activities of a tathāgata 如來事業

activity 作業

activity and effect 行果

activity and nature 行性

activity merely intended 思業

activity of the store consciousness due to concurrent arising 倶轉轉

activity-impressions 業習氣

activity-seeds 業種子

acts evilly 行惡

actuality 現實

actualization 能現在前,

actualize the Way 證道

actualized awakening 證覺

actualized wisdom 證智

actualizes penetrating insight 證通慧

actually does not exist 實無所有

acuity 明利

adamantine absorption 金剛喩定

adamantine eye 金剛眼

adamantine fists 忿怒拳

adamantine jeweled precepts of the one mind 一心金剛寶戒

adamantine mind 金剛心

adamantine vow of all tathāgatas 一切如來金剛誓誡

adaptation to capacities 逗會, 逗機


added; collected 合數

addiction 耽著

addiction to taste 嗜味

adds a year 受歳

adept(s) 無學

adhered to by non-Buddhists 外道所執

adherence to dispassion 受持遠離

adherence to moral behavior 受持禁戒

adherent 論者

adherent of the three-vehicle teaching 三乘之人

adherent of the two vehicles 二乘人

adherent(s) of the three vehicles 三乘人

adherents of the five rules 五法人

adherents of the four-aspect theory 四分家

adherents of the three-vehicle teaching 三乘家

adherents of the view of the three vehicles 三車家

adhering consciousness 阿陁那識

adhering to linguistic expressions 隨言說

administration 事判

administrative monk 事判僧

admission to the order 出家作法

admitted to 應信受


admonishing 誡勗

adorned with flowers 健拏驃訶

adult female lay disciple 優婆夷, 優婆私柯

advancing and regressing 進退

advancing in excellent practices and attaining their consummation 進道勝行成滿得入

advancing on the Way 進道

advent 得有

advocate 立論, 論者

advocate of consciousness-only 唯識論者

advocate of the theory of inconsistent causation 不平等因論者

advocates of the single vehicle 一乘家

affair , 事務, 日迦他, 日遏他

afflicted karma 煩惱業

afflicted mind 煩惱心

affliction 使, 吉隷捨, 煩勞, 煩惱

affliction and defilement 煩惱染汚

affliction and delusion 煩惱妄想

affliction and suffering 煩惱苦

affliction arises 煩惱生

affliction of desire in the form and formless realms 有貪

affliction store 煩惱藏

afflictions affecting those of advanced states of mind 上心惑

afflictions and defilements 煩惱染

afflictions are eliminated 煩惱斷

afflictions are inherently empty 煩惱本空

afflictions are inherently non-existent 煩惱本無

afflictions are originally empty 煩惱本來空寂

afflictions as firewood 煩惱薪

afflictions as object 煩惱境

afflictions as robbers 煩惱賊

afflictions blazing 煩惱熾盛

afflictions countered in the path of cultivation 修惑

afflictions derived from confusion regarding phenomena 事煩惱

afflictions eliminated by insight into the truth of suffering 見苦所斷, 見苦所斷煩惱

afflictions in their state of manifest activity 現行煩惱

afflictions of contaminated karma 有漏諸業煩惱

afflictions of those of advanced states of mind 上心煩惱

afflictions produced from discrimination 分別起

afflictions removed in the path of cultivation 修道惑, 修道所斷煩惱

afflictions seeming to exist 似有煩惱

afflictions such as the view of self 我見等惑

afflictions that are treated in the path of cultivation 修道煩惱

afflictive 煩惱性

afflictive and cognitive hindrances 煩惱所知

afflictive hindrances 煩惱障

afflictive hindrances as well as cognitive hindrances 煩惱障及所知障

afflictive karmic impressions 煩惱習氣

afflictive obstruction(s) 煩惱碍

afflictively hindered consciousness 煩惱障識

afraid of suffering 怖畏衆苦


after dying 命終之後

after finishing one meal, going to another town for another meal 他聚落淨

after that 然後

after the evening assembly 參後, 參退

after this 已後

afternoon 齋罷, 齋退

afterwards 後方

again ,

again afterwards 後更

again says... 復言

again, exactly this...(?) 又卽此

agalloch 沈水

agarwood 沈水

age after age 世世

age in terms of years spent as a monk or nun 夏臘

age of impurity 劫濁

agent 使者

aggregate 哥大, 犍陀, , 聚集, ,

aggregate of a single taste 一味蘊

aggregate of form 色蘊, 色陰

aggregate of the six elements 六界聚

aggregate of volition (dispositions, karmic formations) 行蘊

aggregate that endures throughout transmigration 窮生死陰

aggregates and fields 陰入

aggregates and realms 陰界

aggregates as demons 陰魔

aggregates, fields, and realms 陰入界

aging, sickness, and death 老病死

agnosticism 不可知論

agreeable 可愛

agreeable and pleasant 可愛可樂

agreeable phenomena 可意事

agreeable superior results of karmic maturation 可愛殊勝異熟果

agreeing like a box and lid 凾蓋相應

agreement between the explanation and the metaphor 合譬

agriculture 營農

alas! 嗟嘆

alcoholic beverages made from wheat or barley 麵酒

alkaline water 叉羅波膩, 差羅波尼

all (compounded) things 一切行

all 一切,

all activities (or karmas) 一切業

all adepts 一切聖人

all afflictions 一切煩惱, 煩惱皆

all afflictive hindrances 一切煩惱障

all afflictive karmic impressions 一切煩惱習氣

all are illusory 皆如幻

all are utterly non-existent 一切皆無所有

all ascetic practices 一切苦行

all bases 一切依處

all beings 羣生, 群生, 諸身

all beings accomplish Buddhahood 一切衆生皆悉成佛

all beings become Buddhas 一切皆成

all beings in the ten realms attain Buddhahood 十界皆成佛

all beings possessing life 含生

all benefits 一切利

all births 一切生

all bodhisattva stages 一切諸菩薩住

all bodhisattvas 一切菩薩, 一切諸菩薩

all bodies 一切身

all buddha-lands 一切佛土

all buddha-realms 諸佛世界

all buddhas 一切佛, 一切諸佛

all buddhas of the ten directions and three times 十方三世一切諸佛

all Buddhist teachings 一切佛法

all causes 一切因

all causes and conditions 一切因緣

all circumstances 一切事

all cognitive objects 一切所知境

all compounded phenomena 一切有爲法

all compounded phenomena are suffering 一切行苦

all conceptualizations of the dharma 一切諸法想

all conditioned phenomena 一切有爲, 一切諸行

all consciousnesses 一切識

all constituents 一切依

all contaminants 一切有漏

all contamination is extinguished 一切漏盡

all courses of activity 一切業道

all defilement 一切染

all defilements 一切雜染

all delusions 羣迷, 群迷

all dharmas 一切法, 一切萬法, 諸法

all direct disciples 一切聲聞

all direct disciples and solitary realizers 一切聲聞獨覺

all distinctions in grades of applied practices 一切分位加行差別

all distress and suffering 一切憂苦

all divisions of time 一切時分

all enlightened beings 衆聖

all enlightenment 一切覺

all evil activities, destinies 一切惡

all existence 群有

all existent things 一切有

all existent things are emptiness 卽有卽空

all expedient means 一切方便

all experiences are ultimately suffering 一切皆苦

all explanations 一切說

all explanations of the dharma 一切說法

all factors 一切界

all faults 一切過患

all faults and merits 一切過患及與功德

all forty teeth are even 具四十齒皆悉齊平, 四十齒皆悉齊平

all gatherings 一切衆會

all good phenomena 一切善法

all grades of applied practices 一切分位加行

all groups 一切衆

all have... 悉有

all hindrances 一切障

all is empty 一切皆空

all is non-existent 一切都無所有

all karmic hindrances 一切業障

all kind of teachings 一切種教

all kinds 一切種類

all kinds are completely... 一切種皆

all kinds of beings 羣類, 群類

all kinds of benefit 一切種利, 一切義利

all kinds of benefits for sentient beings 一切利有情

all kinds of characteristics 一切種相

all kinds of conditions 彼彼緣

all kinds of ignorance 一切無明

all kinds of purity 一切種淸淨

all kinds of sentient beings 羣機, 群機, 群品

all kinds of suffering in transmigration 衆苦流轉

all kinds of tools and implements used in the monastery 衆具

all kinds of zeal 一切精進

all knowables 一切所知境界, 一切種所知

all lack 皆無

all learning (?) 一切受

all living beings 一切有情之類

all locations 一切方所

all Māras (evil demons) 一切魔

all marks are false and unsubstantial 凡所有相皆是虛妄

all meditations 一切靜慮

all mental disturbances 一切惑

all mental functions and all omniscience 一切行相一切智智

all mental states 一切心

all merits 一切功德, 衆德

all minds 諸心

all minds and mental factors 諸心心所

all modes 一切行相

all natures 一切性

all negative rebirths 一切惡趣

all objects (of cognition) 一切境

all objects 一切境界

all of space 彌天

all of the precepts 大戒

all parts 一切分

all paths 衆道

all perceptual referents 一切所緣

all personal possessions 一切身財

all phenomena 一切法, 一切諸法

all phenomena are unarisen 一切法不生

all phenomena in the three times truly exist 三世實有

all phenomena lack self nature 一切法皆無自性

all possess mind 一切有心

all possess... 悉有

all ranks 一切位

all realms of desire 一切欲界

all rely on the buddha-nature 皆依佛性

all removed 悉除

all secular non-Buddhist doctrines 世間一切異論

all secular things are illusory 俗妄眞實宗

all seeds 一切種子

all sentient beings 一切有情, 一切衆生

all sentient beings have the buddha-nature 一切衆生有佛性

all sentient beings possess Buddha-nature 一切衆生悉有佛性

all sentient beings possess the womb of the thus-come-one 一切衆生有如來藏

all sorts 一切品

all sprouts 羣萌

all states 一切分位

all suffering 一切苦

all tainted phenomena 一切有漏法

all tathāgata practices 一切如來行

all tathāgatas 一切如來

all that exists 羣有

all that is produced 一切所作

all the armies of Māra 一切魔怨, 一切魔軍

all the distinctive characteristics of a buddha 一切不共佛法

all the factors of enlightenment 一切菩提分法

all the living things in the world 天物

all the remaining... 一切所餘

all the 'true word' rulers 一切眞言王

all there is, is adventitious perceptions 唯有客想

all things 一切萬

all things are (contained in) one 一切卽一

all things are absolute reality just as they are 法如如

all things are nothing but consciousness 一切一心識

all thoughts 一遍

all together 咸同

all treatises 一切論

all types sorts, species, categories, etc. 一切品類

all undertakings 一切所作事

all who are born must perish 生者必滅

all who are in pain 衆疾

all wholesome roots 一切善根

all wishes 衆願

all without exception 一切一切

all worlds 一切世間

all-attained 一切事成, 一切成就, 一切義成就

all-bestowing 一切施

all-consuming afflictions and anxieties 雜染過患

all-inclusive cognition 一切種智, 一切種知

all-inclusive understanding of mundane phenomena 世間一切種知

allowed to be purified 令得淸淨

allowing the thinking consciousness to have its discriminating activity 令分別轉

all-wise one 一切智慧者

alms-begging monk 乞食法師

almsbowl 鉢器, 鉢盂

almsgiver 陀那鉢底

aloes 沈水

alone we are born and die, go and come 獨生獨死獨去獨來

already 已復

already attained 已得

already become a buddha 已成佛

already enlightened 已得菩提, 已覺, 已覺悟

already exhausted 已盡

already gone on to great virtue 已過大德

already perfectly complete 已極圓滿


also clarifies... 兼明

also has 亦有

also like this 亦如是

also the same 亦爾

altar of cremation 化壇

altar of great compassion 大悲壇

alterations of consciousness 識變


always 往往, , 恒時

am going to... 將欲

amala consciousness 唵摩羅識, 阿摩羅識, 阿末羅識

amazing! 阿呼

amidst phenomena 法中

among dependently-arisen phenomena 緣生法中

among human beings 人中

among the marks of a buddha 佛法中

among the patrons 檀中

amount of dust that can rest on the top of a cow's hair 牛毛塵

ample way 衍門

analytical emptiness 析空

ancestor's hall 祖堂

ancestral hall 享堂

ancient 古昔

ancient Buddha 古佛

ancient mirror 古鏡

ancient path 古路

and below 已下

and so forth.. 乃至廣說, 云云

and yet there are distinctions 而有差別

anger as fetter 忿結

angry 忿怒

animal desires 血氣

animals 傍生界

annihilating 空却

annihilationism 斷見

anniversary of a death 一周忌, 年忌, 忌日

anniversary of Buddha's birthday 周祥

announcement of the ritual duties 唱禮

announcement of the robes 唱衣

another and oneself 他己

another life 他世

another lifetime 餘生

another place 餘處

another world 他土

another's treasures 他寳

antecedent causality 次第緣

anti-Buddhist 排佛

anti-Buddhist policy 排佛政策

antidote of disillusionment 厭患對治

antidote(s) 能對治

antidotes are activated 對治道生

antidotes that eliminate 作斷對治

antidotes used in the form realm 欲界對治

antiquity 往昔

anxiety , 罣念

apart from one's own nature, there is no separate buddhahood 離性無別佛

apart from this, there is not... 離此更

apartment for retired monks 閒寮房

apparent 似有

apparent form 似色

apparent mind 似心

apparent self 似我

apparent understanding 似解

appearance of the great bodhi of equal enlightenment 現前等覺大菩提

appearing like 似顯現

appears in the world 出現於世


application 作行

application of patience 忍加行

applied 行精進

applied practices 加行方便

applies meditative, moral practices 作加行


apprehend 照取

apprehend the realm of reality 通達法界

apprehensible 得知

approach 阿耶

approach of admonishment 誡門

approach of meditative absorption 三摩地門

approach of the ten non-dualities 十不二門

approached 旣到

appropriate 執受

appropriate explanation 隨宜說

appropriated aggregates 取蘊

appropriated by the mind 心所執受

appropriated five aggregates 五取蘊

appropriately for each 隨所應

appropriates seeds 能取種子

appropriating and producing 取與

appropriating consciousness 阿陀那識, 阿陁那識, 陀那識

appropriation 取受性, 有執, 有執受, 阿陀那

appropriation of impressions 習氣執受

approval from the saṃgha

approval of a course of action 印治

approval of the enlightenment of the disciple by the teacher 印可

approximate enlightenment 隨分覺

arbitrary proposition 不顧論宗

arcane path 玄猷

ardent desire 猛利樂欲

argument based on the holy scriptures 聖言量

arhat who backslides in the dharma 退法阿羅漢

arise together 竝起

arise together with 具生

arisen 已起

arisen from prior habituation 先習起

arisen light 現起光

arisen through reciprocal conditionality 互爲緣性轉

arises and ceases from moment to moment 念念生滅

arises and ceases together with... 倶生滅

arises instantly and simultaneously 倶時頓生起

arising , 生起

arising and ceasing aspect of the mind 心生滅門

arising and ceasing never stop 起滅不停

arising and ceasing of the mind 心生滅

arising from affliction 雜染轉

arising in dependence on other things 依他起

arising of mind 心生

armed monks 僧兵

armies and forests 軍林

arms extending past the knees 立手摩膝

army 羨那

army of afflictions 煩惱陣

army of Māra 魔兵

army of titans 修羅軍

aroma of the Tagara tree 多伽羅香

aromatic tree 多伽羅

arouse the mind determined for enlightenment 發菩提

arrival for installation 晉山


arteries and veins 血脉

arteries of the ten invocations 十念血脉

artful spirit 工伎鬼

articles donated at a funeral 喪䞋

articles for worship 佛具, 佛器, 法具

articulated 已辨

arts and crafts (technology) 工巧無記

arts and crafts, and fields of knowledge of the secular world 世間工業明, 世間工業明處, 世間工業明論

arts and sciences 巧明

as a basis 爲依處, 爲本

as explained 如所說

as explained above 如先所說

as explained here 如是所說

as far as 乃至

as far as the past is concerned 乃往

as if 猶若

as is suitable 隨其所應

as it originally is 天眞

as object 爲境

as one desires 如其所欲, 隨其所欲

as one pleases 隨樂

as one wants 隨其所樂

as one wishes 如意

as one wishes to know... 隨所欲知

as sentient being 爲衆生

as someone wishes 如所意, 如所意樂

as suitable 如其所應

as the world-honored one said... 如世尊言

as they attain... 如其所得

as well as the remaining... 及餘

as you should know... 如應當知

ascend to the hall 上堂

ascetic practice of dwelling in the forest 阿蘭那行

ascetic practice of living like an animal 牛狗

asceticism 苦行主義

as-illusion samādhi 如幻三昧


aspect of distinctiveness 不共門

aspect of impulse 行趣

aspect of non-enlightenment 不覺義

aspect of sensation 受趣

aspects of non-enlightenment 不覺相

aspects of the container world 器世間相

aspiration for freedom from falsity 無虛妄意樂

aspiration for vast compassion 廣大悲愍意樂

aspiration of the same taste 同一味意樂

assemble a group 會衆

assembly 衆會, 集會

assembly for offerings 冥陽會

assembly hall 雲堂

assembly of a monastic fraternity 七僧法會

assembly of all the Buddhas 一切佛會

assembly of blessings 衆祐

assembly under a single sign 一印會

assembly-place 集會所

assent from one's opponent 他許

assert 立言

assertion 主張

assimilating the derivative into the original 攝末歸本

assist , 翼從

assist in singing, or intoning 同音

assistant abbot 福方丈

associated with a consciousness 識相應

associated with other natures 他性相應

associated with pleasure 樂相應

association 相應

astrological year 年星

at each cut thrice to pay homage 一刀三禮

at odds with each other 互相違

at odds with the scriptural sources 乖聖言

at the opportune time 乘時

at this point in time 卽於爾時

at this time 如是時


attached consciousness 有取識

attachment 住著


attachment 執着, 執著, 貪愛

attachment according to conceptual elaborations 隨戲論着, 隨戲論著

attachment and desire 愛欲

attachment to (the reality of) dharmas 法執

attachment to dharma 法縛

attachment to life 生執

attachment to negation 損減執, 減執

attachment to one's own view 見取見

attachment to selfhood 人執

attachment to sentient being-hood 衆生執

attachment to the nature of a self 執我性

attachment to the own-nature of phenomena 執法自性

attachment to views 見取

attain a body 得身

attain arhatship 得阿羅漢

attain benefit 得利益

attain liberation 得脫

attain nirvāṇa 證得涅槃

attain perfection 得究竟

attain rebirth in the Pure Land 得往生

attain the dharma 得法

attain the precepts 得戒

attain the true path 獲得如實之道

attain the way 得道

attain to 獲得

attain understanding 得解

attain unimpeded power 得自在力

attained after awakening 後得

attained by practice 修得

attained for the first time 始得

attained fruit 得果

attained through activity 作得

attained within... 內所證

attained without applied practices 不恁麼也得

attainer of nirvana directly within the desire realm 現般

attainer of the perfections 度得

attaining one level, one attains to all levels 一位一切位

attaining provisions (necessary for one's livelihood) 得財

attaining the level beyond which there is nothing higher 得無上

attaining the no-thought concentration 入無想

attaining total cessation of mental activity 入滅盡

attaining what was not previously attained 得所未得

attainment of a passionless condition and of supreme perfect enlightenment 無上菩提

attainment of clear-minded faith -ness 證淨

attainment of purity 得證淨

attainment of supernatural power(s) 得通

attainment of the solitary realizer 獨覺果

attainment of three mysteries 三密加持

attainment of virtue 證德

attains 逮至

attains all phenomena 得諸法

attains as one wishes 得隨所欲

attains enlightenment 得菩提

attains excellent autonomy 得勝自在

attains fearlessness 得無所畏

attains freedom difficulty 得無艱難

attains freedom from attachment (desire) 得離欲

attains great sovereignty 得大自在

attains perfect realization 得圓證

attains permanent extinction 得永滅

attains permanent freedom 得永離

attains purity 得淸淨

attains quiescence 得寂靜

attains the buddha-way 得佛道

attains the forbearance that is based on the cognition of the non-arising of all phenomena 得無生法忍

attains the noble path 得聖道

attains the state of non-retrogression 得不退

attendant , 侍者

attitude of wholesome determination 善決定心

attributing existence 安立有

auction 估唱

audacity 傍若無人

audience 聽衆

auditory consciousness 耳識

auditory faculty 耳根


auspicious 吉慶

auspicious and inauspicious circumstances 吉非吉事

auspicious fruit 吉祥果

auspicious gathering 嘉會, 嘉集

auspicious mark 好相

auspicious sea-cloud 吉祥海雲

auspicious vase 吉祥甁

austerities 苦行

authoritative power of the buddhas 佛威力

authority 典據

auxiliary karma 助業

Avalokitêśvara as thusness 一如觀音

Avalokitêśvara confessional 觀世音懺法, 觀音懺法

Avalokitêśvara Hall 觀音殿


avoidance of wrongdoing 防非

awaken 覺悟

awakening 菩提

awakening and discipline 乘戒


awareness of breathing 阿那波那念

awareness toward not dying 不死覺

awareness-cause 了因

awarenesses of great persons 大人覺

awry 喎斜

axe handle

axiom 悉彈多

backbiting speech 離間語言

background halo 後光

bad fortune

bad manners which are to be trained 衆學

baggage that one carries on a journey 行李

Baizhang's escape from falling into a fox existence 百丈野狐墮脫

Baizhang's fox 百丈野狐

Baizhang's unobscured causality 百丈不昧因果

bald-pated vehicle 一禿乘

bamboo cane

bamboo grove 竹林

bamboo tube 竹管



banner of great bodhi 大菩提幢

barbarians 彌戾車, 彌離車

bare entity 唯有事

bare on one side 偏袒


barley and so forth 麥等

base consciousness 本識

base of defilement and purity 染淨依

base of mindfulness 念住, 念處

base of mindfulness of the cultivation of emptiness 空勤修念住

base of nescience 無明地

based on a cause 依於因

based on continuity 依相續

based on this meaning 以此義

based on what causes and conditions? 何因緣故

bases of conceptual elaborations 戯論所依, 戲論所依

bases of defilement 雜染所依

bases of mindfulness and so forth 念住等

basis and appropriation 依止執受

basis for conceptual elaborations 分別戲論所依

basis for mistaken views 見根本

basis of conditions 緣依處

basis of consciousness 識所依

basis of the great vehicle 大乘基

basis of the mind 心所依

basis of the thinking consciousness 意識所依

basis that is not shared by another consciousness 不共所依

basis that is not shared by another faculty, consciousness, etc. 不共依

basis, and that which depends on the basis 所依能依

basket 彼茶, 必棏家

bath steward 溶頭

bath supervisor 監溶


bathing the buddha 溶佛

be accomplished in accordance with 隨成

be moved by the wind 飄鼓

be posited 所安立

be told 宣示

be unbound 無結

bear bodhisattva 羆菩薩

bear witness 證驗

bearing or carriage 姿態

beautiful bodhisattva 喜見菩薩

beautifully robed

because it depends on this (that) 依彼故

become apparent 現入

become firm (strong) 得堅固, 獲得堅固

become followers together 共爲助伴

become frightened 心生驚怖

become good 得善

becoming a monk 作沙門

bedding 世耶那薩喃


before 以還, 先時, 向前

before eating 食前

before the evening assembly 參前

before the teaching 化前

before your parents were born 父母未生前

beggar 乞丐, 來求者

begging 來求乞

begging bowl

begging for alms 羅齋

begging for food 乞食

begging for food as ascetic practice 乞食頭陀

begging knight 乞士

beginner 始行人


beginning and end 始終

beginning of the period of semblance dharma 像始

beginningless 無始

beginningless and endless 無始無終

beginningless and limitless 無始無邊

beginningless birth-and-death 無始生死

beginningless emptiness 無始空

beginningless ignorance 無始無明

beginningless perfuming 無始熏習

beginningless through vast eons 無始曠劫

beginningless time 無始時

begun 正發


being at this level 齊此

being doubtful 猶豫不成

being unfounded 所依不成, 所依不成過

beings with latent tendencies for mental disturbance 煩惱隨眠有情

belief in the reality both past and future 古來實有宗

belief that all dharmas (objective elements) have inherent existence 法我

belief that the law of cause and effect is inconsistent 不平等因論

believe and dedicate 信向

believe and know 信知

believe and submit 信伏

believe in 信受

believe in and look up to 信仰

believer 信者, 有信

bell and board 鐘板

bell and drum 鐘鼓

bell house (or pavilion) 鐘閣

belly-crawler—snakes and so forth 龍蛇

belonging or applicable to many or all 共有

beloved of the gods 天愛

bend one's head 低頭

beneath the bodhi tree 菩提樹下

beneficial service 鐃益行

benefit in the present life 現生利益

benefit to self and others 兼利

benefits of the dharma 法利

benign extinction 無損惱寂滅

beryl 琉璃, 琉璃寶, 瑠璃, 璢璃

besides 之外

best (highest, first, most) in the world 世第一

best of the best 上上品

bestowed equally or universally 僧跋

bestower of fearlessness 有財施, 無畏捨, 無畏施

better 爲勝

between 中間

between the two 二中間

beyond language 離言說

beyond the supramundane 出出世, 出出世間

beyond this there is nothing superfluous and nothing to be added 除此無有若過若增

beyond this, there is nothing to be added 除此更無若過若增

bhikṣu precepts 比丘戒

bias 偏執

big dipper hall 北斗堂

binding by the afflictions 煩惱繫

biographical stories 伊提目多伽

biographies of the Buddha 佛傳

biography 事迹

birds, fish, animals and plants 飛潛走植

birth 仡那, 出胎

birth according to species 隨類生

birth and death 生死

birth and non-birth 生不生

birth by transformation 變化生

birth by transformation done by buddhas and bodhisattvas 佛菩薩化生

birth in a land where the Buddha's doctrine does not flourish 如來不出世

birth in the three realms 三界生

birth in this world (from a higher world) 下生

birth is non-birth 生卽無生

birth of a buddha or bodhisattva 降誕

birth of the Buddha 如來生


birthday celebration assembly 誕生會

birthplace of nine scholars 九土生地

birthplace(s) 受生處所

biscuits , 麻豆瞿羅

black antelope 伊尼延

black dragon 倶利伽羅, 倶力迦, 倶力迦羅, 倶哩迦, 古力迦

black tradition 玄流

blade of grass 一莖草


blaze ,

blazing fire(s) 熾火

blazing wisdom 焰慧


blessed Buddha 佛薄伽梵

blind from birth 生盲

blind masses 群盲

bliss in the Pure Land 五妙境界樂

bliss of the Brahma heaven 梵樂

bliss of the dharma 法喜


blood vessel 血脈

blow out a light 吹光

blow the conch of the Law 吹法螺

blue lotus 嗢鉢, 嗢鉢羅, 鬱鉢羅

blue lotus flower 優鉢羅

Blue Vajra 尼藍婆

blurred 和雜

bodhi 冒地

bodhi tree 覺樹

bodhisattva 一乘菩薩, 大士

bodhisattva bound to a single life (Maitreya) 一生所繫菩薩

bodhisattva divination slips 大士籤

bodhisattva in the position of aiding for one life 一生補處菩薩

bodhisattva of the nine expedient means and ten pāramitās 九方便十波羅蜜菩薩

bodhisattva stages 菩薩階位

bodhisattva superior in pity for others 悲增菩薩

bodhisattvas at the unenlightened stage 凡地菩薩

bodhisattvas capable of transforming all beings in the ten directions 十界能化菩薩

bodhisattva's correct nature of freedom from affliction 菩薩正性離生

bodhisattvas in name only 名字菩薩

bodhisattvas in their final lifetime 後身菩薩

bodhisattvas in their last lifetime before attaining buddhahood 一生菩薩

bodhisattvas of (great) power 大力菩薩

bodhisattvas of the fifty (stages of) mind 五十心菩薩

bodhisattvas prior to the ten abodes 住前菩薩

bodhisattvas who are beginning to practice 始業諸菩薩

bodhisattvas who are determined to attain buddhahood 決定菩薩

bodhisattvas who are in the same level of practice 同法菩薩

bodhi-tree 佛樹, 元吉樹, 菩提樹, 道樹

bodily behavior 身業

bodily faculty 身根

body 舍利

body and mind 身心

body and spirit 形神

body as provisional synthesis 假合之身

body born from the dharma-nature 法性生身

body for the enjoyment of the beings in the world 他受用身

body mentally produced from the enjoyment of meditative absorption 三昧樂正受意生身

body of dharma realm 法界身

body of equalized activity 齊業身

body of sentient beings 衆生身

body of the post-learner 無學身

body of the solitary realizer 緣覺身

body of the three mysteries 三祕密身

body taken on after 後身

body that encompasses all aspects 一切普門身

body with consciousness 有識身

body without consciousness 無識身

boiling sand 煮沙

bond of ignorance 無明結

bondage of attachment 取結

bondage of possession 得繩

book case 可漏, 可漏子

born by the side of the road 大路邊生

born by transformation 變易生

born in the form realm 生色界

born in the three realms 生三有

born into the future life 已今當往生

born into the ninth rank of paradise 九品安養之化生

born miraculously 化生

born to remove hardships 除災生

both ,

both feet 兩足, 雙足

both kinds at once 通二種

both kinds together 二種倶

both positions are accepted 倶許

both presence and absence in similar instances, absence in dissimilar instances 同品有非有異品非有

both presence and absence in similar instances, and presence in dissimilar instances 同品有非有異品有

both presence and absence in similar instances, both presence and absence in dissimilar instances 同品有非有異品有非有

both the vajra and garbha maṇḍalas 金胎兩部

both untrue 兩倶不成

both-partial 倶品一分轉

bottom , 底下

bottomless, beginningless, originless 無端

bought as a serf or slave 吉利多

bound to cognition of certain distinctive characterstics 了別縛

bound to one birth 一生所繫

bound to the three realms 三界所繫

boundless 無邊際

bovine bile 牛黃

bow of great compassion 大悲弓

bowing the head 俯首示敬

bowing with folded hands 合掌平拱

bowl for ceremonial water 阿伽坏

bowl used to subdue dragons 降龍鉢


boy who takes care of the lamps 丙丁童子

Brahma Bell Pavilion 梵鐘樓

brahma heaven 梵天

Brahma palace 梵殿

Brahma's Net 梵網


branch of calm abiding meditation 奢摩他支

branch of enlightenment of mindfulness 念等覺支, 念覺支

branch temples 分院

breadfruit 半娜, 半娜裟

breakfast and lunch in the monastery 齋粥

breaking off the fetters of distinct types of affliction 於諸煩惱品別離繫

breaking through three barriers 三關突破

breath of the nostrils 鼻息

breathless 出息不待入

breath-snatching demon 奪精鬼

bridge , 橋梁

bridge over the hell-river 奈河橋

briefly explain(s) 略釋

bright moon and cool breezes 風月

bright phenomenon 雞兜

bright-eyed (or wide-eyed) daughter 光目女

brightly shining land 光明土

brightness of a burning lamp 燈明

bring to completion 令至

bring together

bringing in the buddha 入佛

bringing in the buddha image for offerings 入佛供養

bringing the hands together without touching 三補吒

bringing to maturity 令成熟

brings joy to 令悅豫

broad and extensive body 廣博身

broad and narrow 廣狹

broad great vehicle cognition 大乘廣智

broadly clarify 廣顯

brother (tonsure) disciples 師兄弟

brothers 兄弟

brothers of the clouds and waters 雲兄水弟, 雲衆水衆

brought about by cultivation 修所引

bucket of black lacquer 黑漆桶

buddha 佛陀, 佛馱, 佛駄

Buddha altar 佛壇

Buddha always taught the same thing 一向說

Buddha appearing in the world 佛出世

Buddha as Buddha-nature 佛性佛

buddha cognition 佛智

Buddha Country Temple 佛國寺

buddha field 佛田

buddha footprint stone 佛足石

Buddha image cleaning ceremony 灌佛會

buddha image maker 佛工, 佛師

buddha in six forms 六卽佛

buddha in the mind 心佛

Buddha jewel monastery 佛寶寺刹

Buddha land 佛土

buddha lineage 佛種姓

buddha mother 佛母

buddha nature does not experience hell 佛性不受羅

buddha ocean 佛海

Buddha perceived as a Buddha 佛想佛

buddha recitation hall 念佛堂

buddha treasure 佛寶

Buddha treasure 佛寳

buddha view 佛見

buddha vow 佛願

Buddha, the great commander 佛大師

Buddha-activities 佛所作

buddha-age 佛世

buddha-bodhisattva altar 佛菩薩壇

buddha-body 佛身

buddha-body land 佛身土

Buddha-eye 佛眼

buddha-flowers 佛華

Buddha-fruit 佛果

Buddha-groups 佛部

Buddha-hall 佛堂

buddha-hall 佛殿, 雁堂, 雁宇

buddhahood 佛位

buddha-land 佛國

Buddha-lands 佛國土

buddha-lands of the ten directions 十方佛土

buddha-mind 佛心

Buddha-moon 佛月

buddha-nature 佛性

buddha-nature as thusness 佛性眞如

buddha-nature drawn out 引出佛性

Buddha-nature in practice 事法身

buddha-nature of direct cause 佛性正因

buddha-nature precepts 佛性戒

buddha-offering 佛供

buddha-peak 佛頂

buddha-places 佛所

Buddha-power 佛力

buddha-printing ritual 印佛作法

buddha-realm 佛世界

Buddha-realm 佛境界

buddha-realm 佛界

buddha's (physical) body 佛身

buddhas and bodhisattvas 佛菩薩

buddhas and bodhisattvas of the six destinies 六道佛菩薩

buddhas and celestials 佛天

buddhas and patriarchs 佛祖

buddhas and worldlings are of the same essence 佛凡一體

buddhas appearing in the world 諸佛出世

Buddha's birthday 佛生日

Buddha's birthday celebration 佛生會, 浴佛節, 花祭, 降誕會

Buddha's body 佛體

buddha's bones 佛骨

Buddha's caitya 佛支提

Buddha's field of merit 佛福田

Buddha's insight 佛知見

Buddha's instructions 佛教敕

buddha's long life of teaching others 化他壽

buddha's mouth and a serpent's heart 佛口蛇心

buddha's name 佛名

Buddha's noble teaching 佛聖教

Buddhas of the ten days of fasting 十齋佛, 十齋日佛

buddhas of the ten directions 十方佛

buddhas of the three periods 三世諸佛

buddhas of the three times 三世佛

buddha's prediction 佛記

Buddha's remains 佛舍利

buddha's roar 佛吼

Buddha's śāsana 佛敕

buddha's self-manifestation to all creation 一切法界自身表

Buddha's sermon 佛說

Buddha's teaching as main perceptual referent 佛法增上所緣

buddha's tooth 佛牙

Buddha's voice 佛陀槃遮

buddha's wisdom 佛慧, 佛智慧

buddha-seal 佛印

buddha-sphere 佛境

buddha-stage 佛地

Buddha-store 佛藏

buddha-stūpa 佛塔

Buddha-sun 佛日

Buddha-tathāgata 佛如來

Buddha-vehicle 佛乘

buddha-vehicle morality 佛乘戒

buddha-way 佛道

Buddha-work 佛事

buddha-work ceremony 法會儀式

buddha-works 佛所作事

Buddha-works that are undertaken 佛所作事業

Buddhism 佛宗, 佛教

Buddhist ceremony 法要式

Buddhist community 佛教界

Buddhist council 作集法

Buddhist disciple 法弟子

Buddhist era 佛紀

Buddhist funeral 佛葬

Buddhist hymn 佛教音樂

Buddhist joy-day 佛歡喜日

Buddhist last day of the old year 佛臘日

Buddhist logic's thirty three fallacies 因明三十三過

Buddhist painting 佛畵

Buddhist precepts 佛戒

Buddhist purification movement 佛教淨化運動

Buddhist Saṅgha 佛教教團

Buddhist Sanskrit 佛教梵語

Buddhist stūpa worship 佛塔崇拜

Buddhist sūtras 佛經

Buddhist teaching 佛門

Buddhist temple 佛寺, 佛舍

buddhist year 法臘

Buddhists 佛徒, 佛氏

Buddhists and non-Buddhists 內外道

bunched seeds 嗚嚕捺囉叉, 天目珠


bundle of rushes 交蘆

Bunhwang School 芬皇宗

burn , ,

burn incense 焚香

burn the hair of a novice 煅髮

burning 能燒

burning brightly 焰熾

burning house of the triple world 三界火宅

burning mouth 燄口

bushel 佉梨

busily, hurriedly, hastily 匆匆

butcher's occupation 旃陀羅

by means of

by the power of one's great vow 以大願力

by this 以是

by this... 以此

by violence 以凶力

by what causes and conditions...? 以何因緣

by what reasoning? 何義故

bygone 先過去

by-path 傍家

byway 傍家

cage of the afflictions 煩籠

calculation 數量

calf 牛子, , 犢子

call 一喝, ,

call monks 應赴僧

call to order(?) 作梵

called latent

called nothing other than... 唯說

called sentient beings 說名衆生

called thus come

calm abiding 奢摩他, 奢摩陀, 寂靜, 舍摩他

calm and insight 奢摩他毘婆舍那, 奢摩他毘鉢舍那

camphor 劫布羅, 香龍腦, 龍腦香

can be called 可言

can be lead astray 可引奪

can be rejected 可廢

can be said 得說

can burn 得燒然

can produce 能生起

candle in the wind 風燈, 風燭

candle in the winds 風中燈

cannot 不可,

cannot arise 不能生

cannot attain 不能得

cannot be called 不可言

cannot be elaborated in detail 不可具陳

cannot be led astray (seduced) 不可引奪

cannot be posited 不可建立

cannot be predicated 不可記

cannot be purified 不可修治

cannot be seduced 不能引奪

cannot be swayed from the truth 不能引轉

cannot get rid of 不能離

cannot lead (draw, pull) 不能引

cannot reach 不能及

canon , 契範

canon prefect 知藏

canon summary 典攬

canonical scriptures 內典

canonical teachings 內教

canopy of smoke 煙蓋

capable of further advance 可進相

capacities of sentient beings 衆生根

capacity 器量

captain of the great ship 大船師


carriage of a recluse sage 仙駕

carries out all Buddha-works 作諸佛事

carries out punishment 行黜罰

carry in the mind 運心

carry out in accordance with... 隨順而轉

carry out or perform 修行

carry water 運水

carry water and haul firewood 運水搬柴

carrying out correct practices 行正行

carrying out expedient teachings 行權, 行權方便

carrying path 運轉道

cast lots 行籌

cast off defilement 去穢

casting off evil 遠離惡

castrated man

casual talk 取次語

catastrophe of great winds 大風災

catching the ox 得牛

categories of Buddhist concepts 法數

categories of phenomena 事品

category of affliction 煩惱品

category of particular knowledge 類智品

category(s) of pleasure 樂品

causal consciousness 緣識

causal portion 因分

causal practices 因行

causal stage 因人, 因地

causal viewpoint of conditioned arising 緣起因分

causality spanning the three periods 三世因果

causation according to ordinary language 隨說因

cause and effect 因果

cause of abiding in the present condition 住因

cause of the great vehicle 大乘因

cause them to abandon 令其捨離

cause them to cultivate good roots 令修善根

cause them to enter into 令其趣入

cause to abandon 令捨離

cause to attain liberation 令得解脫

cause to hear 令聞

cause to permanently eliminate 令永斷

cause to proceed 令趣

caused to enter 令入

causes and conditions 因緣

causes and conditions from prior lifetimes 先世因緣

causes and conditions of the great matter 大事因緣

causes and conditions of wholesome roots 善根因緣

causes and conditions that accord with the buddhadharma 法緣

causes and conditions that constitute the basis 因緣依處

causes of affliction 煩惱因

causes of all types of patterns of rebirth 一切趣因

causes of buddhahood 佛因

causes of contaminated karma 有漏業因

causes of human rebirth 人因

causes of practice 行因

causes of retribution 熟因

causes of the teaching of the one vehicle 一乘因

causes of the truth of suffering 集諦因

causes of uncontaminated karma 無漏業因

causes of wholesome roots 善根因

causes that tend to induce related effects 引發因

causes to generate 令生

causing them to abandon 令其遠離

causing to rest 息處


cave 石窟, 龕窟

cave of the seven leaves 七葉窟


celestial among celestials 天中天

celestial and human realms 天人世間

celestial bow 天帝弓, 天弓

celestial crown 天冠

celestial drawings 天畫

celestial gold 天金

celestial mouth 天口

celestial music 天樂

celestial palace 天堂, 天宮

celestial vase 天德甁

celestial wish tree 天意樹

celestials and humans 天人

celestials of the five vehicles 五乘居天

celestials of the upper realms 上界天

celestials serving Indra 供天, 天供

cemetery 奢舍磨奢

censer 香合, 香爐

centaur 健沓惒

central body 中體

central Garbhadhātu 中胎, 中胎藏

central honored one 中尊

ceremonial canopy 寶蓋

ceremonial sprinkling of the head of a monarch at his investiture with water from the seas and rivers (in his domain) 具支灌頂

ceremonies within the court 內齋

ceremony for releasing living creatures 放生會

ceremony for releasing the living 放生法會

ceremony for the acceptance of the five precepts 三歸五戒, 三歸戒

ceremony held to commemorate the Buddha's birthday 佛誕會

ceremony of reciting the names of the buddhas 佛名懺悔, 佛名懺禮, 佛名會

ceremony of the third day 三日齋

certain experiences of pleasure and pain 如是領受苦樂

certainly will 必至

cessation and observation 止觀

cessation of both 倶滅

cessation of defilements 雜染還滅

cessation of mind 心滅

cessation through non-arising 不生斷

cessational effect 離繫果


change, decay — resulting in suffering 變壞

changeless and inexhaustible 無變無盡

chant , 吟詠, 吟諷,

chant a sūtra (together) 誦經

chant the name 誦名

chanting 念誦

chanting on the third and eighth days 三八念誦

chapter on establishing 建立品

chapter on the abodes 住品

chapter on the entrustment to Ānanda 囑累阿難品

characteristic of Consciousness-only 相唯識

characteristic of constancy 常住相

characteristic of differentiation 差別之相

characteristic of disintegration 變壞相

characteristic of impermanence 無常相

characteristic of non-retrogression 不退相

characteristic of other-dependence 依他起相

characteristic of permanence 常相

characteristic of quiescence 寂靜相

characteristic of that which is compounded (storehouse consciousness) 和合相

characteristics of phenomena 法相

characteristics of the obscurations 障相

characteristics of the precepts 律相

characteristics of the three times 三世相

characteristics peculiar to each individual person 不共法

charity 布施,



chase after 隨逐

checkpoint 檢點


chewable 嚼食

chief disciple 大弟子

child 弗多羅

child of inconceivable wisdom 不思議慧童子

children 諸子

children of the Buddha 佛子

chiliocosm 大千

chimera 緊那羅


circulated everywhere 周匝

circumambulate 上肩順轉, , 圍遶

circumstances that are the perceptual referents for conceptual elaborations 分別戲論所依緣事

circumstantial and direct rewards 依正

circumstantial reward 依報

citadel of the mind 心城

cite an example 引例

citron 微若布雷迦

city of the Gandharvas 乾城

city of the gandharvas 鬼城

claim 主張

clarified more and more 倍復明淨

clarify 决了, 澄淨

clarity of the divine eye 天眼明

clasping one's hands in respect 合掌恭敬

class of the wisdom of emptiness of phenomena 法空智品

clear 光淨, , 現照

clear explanation 顯了說

clear matter or principle 了義

clear observation of phenomena 法現觀

clearly and distinctly 了了分明

clearly disclosed 顯明

clearly distinguished causation 定別因, 定異因

clearly explains 明說

clearly observe reality; clear contemplation 現觀

clearly observing cognition 現觀智

cliffs and valleys 巖谷

clinging 妄取

clinging consciousness 阿陀那識

cloister oneself 隱居

closed flower 含花, 含華

closed lotus-flower 合蓮華

closing note 合殺

clothed deva 衣服天

clothing and food 衣食


cloud drum 雲鼓

cloud of offerers 供帳雲

cloudless heaven 無雲天

clouds fly by 雲奔

clouds of delusion 妄雲

cloud-shaped clapper 雲版

club used to call the monks to the meals 引飯大師

clucking of fowls 倶倶羅, 雞聲

cluster , 聚集

coarse 麤品

coarse and pure faith 麤淨信

coarse attachment 麤執

coarse body 麤身

coarse discrimination 麤分別

coarse food 叚食

coarse hindrances in the lower stages 下地麤苦障

coarse marks 麤相

coarse person 麤人

coarse silk 麤絹

coarseness and subtlety 麤細

cock or dog discipline 雞狗戒

code of moral discipline 鼻那夜

code of rules 規約

code of vinaya precepts 隨順解脫

coexistent phenomena 倶有法

coffin 靈龕

cognition 了別

cognition as nourishment 識食

cognition of all existents 如所有智

cognition of all places 一切所知

cognition of consciousness-only 唯識智

cognition of dependent origination 緣起智

cognition of essential identity 平等性智

cognition of essential natures as they really are based on the investigation of their designations 隨自性施設求如實智

cognition of names as they really are based on their investigation 隨名求如實智

cognition of objects 了境

cognition of ordinary unenlightened people 識情

cognition of specificities as they really are based on the investigation of their designations 隨差別施設求如實智

cognition of substances as they really are based on their investigation 事尋思所引如實智, 隨事求如實智

cognition of the gate to full achievement 引發門智

cognition of the indescribable 不可稱智

cognition of the ineffable 不可稱智

cognition of the ultimate truth of all phenomena 一切法第一義智

cognition of things as they really are 如是知, 如實智

cognition with unrestricted activity 作事智, 成所作智

cognitive faith 信忍

cognitive function 了別作用

cognitive obscurations 所知障

cognitive obstruction 智礙

cognizable 得知

cognizance of non-arising 無生忍

cognize 了別

cognized 所照

cognizes the non-existent 緣非有

cognizes the non-existent as object 緣非有爲境

cognizing a self 了別我

cognizing bases 了別依

cognizing the natural world 了別器


cold and warm 冷暖

cold swill 冷淘

collect all together without leaving or missing anything 該羅

collection of philosophical treatises 論藏

collections of rules 乾度, 建圖, 建陀

collectively arisen 集起

color 顯色

color of wind 風色

colors of the three divisions 三部主色

columbarium 普同塔

combination 三摩婆夜

combination and dispersion 合散

combination of three factors 三和合

combine to become... 合爲

combined into one term 合爲一

combined refutation 合破

combined text 會本

combining consciousness 和合識


come and harass 來逼

come appropriately 來應

come forth accurately 如實轉

come into being 得生起

come into existence 現在前行

come to understand according to 隨悟入

come, good sons 善男子來

coming retribution 來果

coming together of various conditions 緣會

comings and goings 若往若來

commencement 始起

commentaries 章疏

commentaries on the three sūtras 三經疏釋, 三經義疏

Commentary on the Awakening of Mahāyāna Faith 大乘起信論疏

commit a grave offense 犯重

commit crimes , 犯罪

common attainments 共同成就

common knowledge 周知

common people 庶類

commonality of sentient beings 衆同分

commonplace 家常, 尋常, 日常, 日用

community of monks and nuns

companion (of a king) 僚庶

compassion based on awareness of the suffering of sentient beings 衆生緣慈

compassion based on awareness of the true nature of phenomena 法緣慈悲

compassion based on the awareness of the suffering of sentient beings 有情緣慈, 生緣慈悲

compassion lacking a specific object 無緣慈悲

compassionate 有恩

compassionate attitude 哀愍心

compassionate father of the three worlds 三界慈父

compassionate intention 哀愍意樂

compassionately enduring suffering for others 大悲代受苦

compel 逼廹

complaining about a monk's life to court a woman's sympathy 向女人歎身索供

complete (undefiled) accordance with reality 隨行

complete 十成,

complete Buddhist canon 一切經

complete enlightenment 現等覺

complete purification 具足淸淨

complete teaching of the single vehicle 一乘滿教

complete understanding of the triple world 三世了達

complete vinaya 廣律

complete works 全書

completely contaminated 一向有漏

completely eliminate 除斷

completely isolated 一向離

completely pervaded by compassion 大悲周遍

completely uncontaminated 一向無漏

completing the result in one life 一生果遂

completion of actions (practices) 行滿

completion of seeds 種子成就

completion of the task of guiding and teaching others 化緣完了

completion of works 事圓滿

compliant 和順

compliant forbearance 隨順忍

composite 聚集

compositional factors of the six consciousnesses 六識界

compound consciousness 和合識相

compound words that are possessive 有財釋

compound words that contain a principle component and qualifying component 依主釋, 依士釋

compound words that where there is equality of dependence between the terms 同依釋

compounds as cause 總執爲因

compounds of coarse materiality 麤色聚

comprehensively includes all 總攝一切


conceal form 隱形

conceal oneself 隱伏


concealing the seven crimes 七遮罪

conceals 祕弊

concentration (samādhi) attained by cultivation 修得定

concentration 靜慮

concentration arisen from great compassion 大悲生心三昧耶

concentration by invocation 口稱三昧

concentration in which the buddhas appear before one 佛立

concentration of all mysteries 一切種妙三昧

concentration of cessation 想受滅定, 想受滅無爲, 滅盡定

concentration of dispersal by the wind 風奮三昧

concentration of great compassion 大悲三昧, 大悲定

concentration of great quiescence 大寂定

concentration of neither perception nor non-perception 非想非非想處定

concentration of no associative thought 無想定

concentration of no defiled attachment to any phenomena 不染著諸法三昧

concentration of non-abiding 無住三昧

concentration of Samantabhadra 普賢三昧

concentration of the Buddha's appearance 佛立三昧

concentration of the greatly compassionate womb-store 大悲胎藏三昧

concentration of the tathāgatas 一切如來定

concentration on the lotus-like fundamental purity of existence 一切如來諸法本性淸淨蓮華三昧

concentrations of liberation from form 無色解脫定

concentrations of the formless realm 無色定, 無色界定

concept of self 我相

conception of impermanence 無常想

conception of self 人我

conception of selflessness 無我想

conception of sentient beinghood 衆生想

conceptions of non-perishing 無沒想

conceptual designations 假想施設

conceptual elaborations 分別戲論

conceptualization 遍計

conceptualized unconditioned 識變無爲

concerned for both wisdom and morality 乘戒倶急

conch 商佉, 商迦, 餉佉

conch of the great teaching 大法螺

concluding in the same intention 同歸

concomitant with affliction 惑相應

concomitant with emptiness 空性相應

concomitant with the great vehicle 大乘相應

concomitant with the momentariness of mind 心刹那相應

concubine 側女

concurrence is possible 倶轉可得

concurrent 倶起

concurrent conditions 倶生緣

concurrent negative and positive karma 黑白倶業

concurrently practices 具修

condition of nescience 無明緣

condition of no-mind 無想事

condition or process in which all dharmas (existences, things, mental states) are established 法位

conditional causes of buddha-nature 緣因佛性

conditioned 有作

conditioned activity 行爲

conditioned and fundamental 緣正

conditioned by becoming there is birth 緣有有生

conditioned by birth there arise old age and death 緣生有老死

conditioned by consciousness there is name-and-form 緣識有名色

conditioned by contact there is sensation 緣觸有受

conditioned by craving there is grasping 緣愛有取

conditioned by ignorance there are the formative forces 緣癡有行

conditioned by name-and-form there are the six sense-fields 緣名色有六入

conditioned by sensation there is craving 緣受有愛

conditioned cognition 緣智

conditioned cyclic existence 有爲世間

conditioned dharmas 緣法

conditioned energy 緣氣

conditioned nirvāṇa 有爲涅槃

conditioned phenomena 有爲法

conditioned phenomena of the past 過去諸行

conditioned thoughts 緣念, 緣想

conditioned thusness 隨緣眞如

conditions for naming 名緣

conditions of distinction 差別緣

conditions of equality 平等緣

conditions of life 命緣

conducive to welfare 補瑟置, 補瑟迦

confer the precepts 傳戒

confession 說非, 阿鉢底鉢喇底提舍那

confession for the sins of the senses 六根懺悔

confirm it 證之

confirming a monastic act in an incomplete assembly 隨意淨

conflagration 猛火

conflict experienced in the course of overcoming afflictions when one's practice is impure 障治相違

conflicted 有諍

conflicting 有相違

conflicts in the simultaneous presence (of opposites) 同處相違

confluence of the four kinds of causation 四緣和合


confucian scholars 儒博

confused , 相濫

confused thought 亂想

confused unenlightened beings 倒凡

confusion 喧嘩, 顚倒者

confusion in regard to the basis 倒根本


congee 稀飯,

conglomeration 總執

congregations as numerous as atoms 微塵衆

congruent 義會

conjured city 化城

conjurer 幻師


connected with the sages 古聖主, 阿利沙

connects with its own objects 緣自境

conscious beings 識物


consciousness as contingent object 識緣

consciousness as unreal 識幻

consciousness at the time of death 命終時識

consciousness containing all seeds 一切種子識, 一切種識

consciousness is not separate from the body 識不離身

consciousness itself 識體

consciousness of the same five objects 五同緣意識

consciousness with a wide range of referents 廣緣識

consciousnesses that discern objects 了別境識

consciousness-only 唯識

consciousness-only in meditation and practice 行唯識

consciousness-store 識藏

consecration 灌頂, 詵遮

consecration by five buddhas 五佛灌頂

consecration of removing obstacles 除難灌頂

consecration of the dharma-transmission 付法灌頂

consecration with the water of the five vases 五甁灌頂

constantly 恒時

constituent of sound 聲界

constitutional element(s) of karmic formations 行界

constructed entrenchments 作得住地

construction of 'mine' 作我所

consultation on ranks 議職

consummate purity 究竟眞淨

consummation of the stage of the non-returner 不還果

consumption of alcohol 飮酒



container consciousness 藏識

container world 器世

containing sentience 含情

contaminated 有漏

contaminated goodness 有漏善

contaminated truth of arising 有漏集諦

contemplate the four truths 觀四諦

contemplates on the own nature of something 自相作意

contemplates the holy truths 觀聖諦

contemplation appropriate to practitioners of the great vehicle 大乘相應作意

contemplation appropriate to the vehicle of the direct disciples 聲聞乘相應作意

contemplation of cognition-only 唯識觀

contemplation of impermanence 無常觀

contemplation of selflessness 無我觀

contemplation of suffering 苦觀

contemplation of the mean 中觀

contemplation of the mind 心觀

contemplation of the mind as transient 觀心無常

contemplation of the provisional 假觀

contemplation of the three assumptions 三假觀

contemplation on arising from emptiness 生空觀

contemplation on vast wisdom 廣大智慧觀

contemplation that takes the self-nature of the realm of existence as referent 緣於法界自相作意

contemplative sitting image 半跏像, 半跏思惟像

contempt 譏嫌

contents of noble behavior 諸聖法

contingent on the truths of suffering and its arising 緣苦集

continual mindfulness 念相續


continuance of the mental stream 心相續

continuation of distinctive marks without break 自相相續不斷

continue in a series 相續展轉

continuing after 隨手

continuity 相續

continuity of cause and effect 習因習果

continuity of sameness in type 一類相續

continuous activity 行履

continuous subsequent changes for the better 後後轉勝

continuously active 相續而轉

contradicting expressed-predicate 法自相相違, 法自相相違因

contradicting expressed-subject 有法自相相違因

contradiction with experience 現量相違

contradictory to common sense 世間相違

contrary causes 逆緣

contrary example 異類譬喩

contrary order in conducting funerals 逆修

contrast between hidden and revealed 隱顯互論

contributory cause 緣因

contributory conditions 方便緣

contributory factor as cause/condition 增上緣

contributory factors in the production of works of art or engineering 工業增上緣

contrivance sickness 作病

contriving 起諸分別

controller 主宰, 調御大夫


convenient 便利

conventional 三佛栗底

conventional corrective practices 世間治道

conventional explanation 世間言說

conventional truth 世俗諦, 俗諦, 覆諦

conventional wisdom 世間慧

conventionally (provisionally) established realm 假境

conventionally designated emptiness 假名空

conventionally established language 假立言說

conversion 囘心, 廻心

convert 化轉

convert and entice 化誘

converted followers 化屬

converting non-Buddhist opponents 逆化



cooked food

cooked food kept in the room 內煮

cooperation with others to lead them into the truth 同事攝, 同事攝事

coral , 珊明

core 內實

cornelian 牟娑

coronation of the dharma-transmission 傳法灌頂


corpse-ghost 屍鬼


correct awakening 正覺

correct contemplation 如實觀, 正作意

correct enlightenment 三耶三菩

correct enlightenment of non-appropriation 不取正覺

correct inference 眞比量

correct kindness 如理憐愍

correct meditation on the eight negations 八不正觀

correct mindfulness 正念

correct observation 正觀

correct observation analysis, contemplation, inspection 如實觀察

correct practice 善修

correct reason of non-cognition 不可得正因, 不覓正因

correct thinking 如理思惟

correct thought 正念, 正思惟

correct understanding 如實解

correct view 正見

correct wisdom that is attained through practice 修慧

corrected according to the rules 如法治

corrective cultivation 對治修

correctly 以正

correctly abide 如實隨住

correctly contemplate 如理觀察

correctly observe 如理觀

correctly refutes 正破

corresponding 如應

corresponding realms 同分界

corruptible body 壞滅身

couch 佉啁羅


council at Rājagṛha 王舍城結集

council of the Five Hundred 五百集法, 五百結集

council of the five hundred arhats 五百羅漢聚集

council of the seven hundred 七百結集

Council of the Seven Hundred 七百集法

countable 可數

counter pervasion 倒遍

counteracted by faith 信所對治

counteracted by tirelessness 無厭倦所對治

counteractive agent(s) 能對治


counterfeit teaching(s) 似正法

countless and limitless 無量無邊

countless births and deaths 無量生死

countless factors of the mind 沙心

countless incalculably long eons 無量阿僧祇劫

countless multitude 無量衆

countless myriads 千萬億

countless sentient beings 無量衆生

countless skillful means 無數方便

countless varieties 無量品類, 無量種

countlessness of types 品無量

courageous disposition 稟性勇決

course of action 去就

courses of life and birth 行跡趣入

courses through birth and death without defiled action 行生死無雜染行


court of the earthly kings 世間天院

court of the eight-petaled lotus in the middle of the garbhadhātu 中臺八葉院


covered seats 被位


coveting 求報

covetousness 增伺, , 貪愛

cow bezoar aid 牛黃加持

cow dung 牛屎

cow-dung 牛糞

cow-dung seed 牛糞種

cowrie white as snow 珂雪



crag 世羅,


craving , 貪愛

craving and ill-will 貪欲瞋恚, 貪瞋

craving for (enjoyment of) worldly possessions 世財貪喜


crazy flowers 狂華

create , 造化

create obstacles 作障礙

created (by a person) 人作

created based upon other things 他作

created from illusion 幻作

created matter 造色

creates fear 生怖畏

creates unremitting activity (karma) 造無間業

creation of enjoyment heaven 化樂天

creator 作者

cremation 涅疊般那

crime 罪業

crimes against the saṃgha

crimes for which one may not necessarily be excommunicated 僧伽婆尸沙, 僧殘

criticize 呵責, , 譏評

crocodile 倶毘羅, 叔叔摩羅

crookedness; perverse 奢陀

crops 苗稼

cross a river 度河


crossed out with a stroke of the pen 一筆勾, 一筆勾銷

crosswise and upright 橫竪

crowding sheep

crowds of sage-recluses 群仙


crown of grass 沙髻

crude 麤品

crude bonds 麤纏

crude objects 麤境


crystal 玻璃

cultivate and eliminate 習滅

cultivate and gather (virtue) 修集

cultivate application 修加行

cultivate correct practices 修正行

cultivate goodness and eliminate evil 習善滅惡

cultivate goodness and to eliminate harmful habits 修斷

cultivate practices assiduously 修習多修習

cultivate skillful means 修方便

cultivate the mind 修心

cultivated evil 修惡

cultivated simultaneously with 修倶行

cultivates 能修習

cultivates merit 修功德

cultivates the practice of tranquility 修止行

cultivates tranquility 修止

cultivates unwearying practice 修行無厭倦行

cultivates wholesome factors 修習諸善法

cultivates wholesome roots 修習善本

cultivates wisdom 修惠

cultivating attention (devotion) 修習作意

cultivating compassion 修慈

cultivation 修業

cultivation and completion 修習圓滿

cultivation and nature 修性

cultivation and realization 修證

cultivation in abundance 修廣大

cultivation of attention 作意修習

cultivation of calm abiding and insight 修止觀

cultivation of compassion 修悲

cultivation of goodness 修善

cultivation of impermanence 無常修

cultivation of impurity 修不淨

cultivation of selflessness 無我修

cultivation of the truth 修行法

cutting off the nine classes of affliction together 兼斷九品惑

cyclic existence 僧娑洛

cymbals 銅抜

daily living necessities 必需品

Dalai Lama 達賴喇嘛

dangerous amusements 凶戲

Daoism 老莊思想, 道家思想

Daoist 道家

Daoist classics 仙經

dare not 不敢

dark realm(s) 冥界

darkness , 冥冥

data field of odor 香塵

dauntless mind 心無怯劣

day of connection 緣日

day of the monks confessional 僧自恣日

day's abiding 晝行

days of purification 齋日

days of remembrance 囘忌

dead 亡者

dealing with rebuke and punishment of a wrongdoer 呵責犍度

death by inconceivable transformation 不思議變易死

death from external conditions 外緣死

debilitaing hindrances 麤重障

debilitation 麤行

debilitations of thought 心麤重

debilitative aspect 麤重相


decay 叉耶, 壞滅


deceitful words 誑語

deceived in regard to the reality of phenomena 法妄

deceived intelligence 妄慧

deception , 詐僞


decide resolutely 決了

decision by majority vote 多語毘尼

decision making 決定思

decisive discrimination 決定分別

decline 不饒益


decoration of one altar 一壇構


decreased 已滅

dedication of merit 囘向

deduction 比量

deed of killing 煞業

deeds 身業

deep principle 底理

deep, subtle analysis that penetrates to the core of things 伺察

deer 何履那

deer park of the sages 仙人鹿野苑


deficient in study 匱聞

defile 染汙

defile a household 汚家

defiled 不淨, 染汚, 雜染

defiled attachment 染著

defiled conditions 染緣

defiled giving 雜染施

defiled grasping of phenomena 雜染所取分別

defiled habituation 染數, 染習

defiled ignorance 染汚無知, 染無知

defiled love 染愛

defiled mental states 染汚心

defiled mentation 染汚末那

defiled mind 染心, 雜染心

defiled phenomena 染汚法

defiled practice 雜染行

defiled realm 染界

defiled state of concentration 世間禪

defiled thusness 有垢眞如

defilement , , 塵勞, 塵垢

defilement and purity 染淨

defilement and purity in their aspect of non-difference 染淨不二門

defilement in which the mind is not associated with manifest form 現色不相應染

defilement of activity 業染汚

defilement that is concomitant with non-interruption 不斷相應染

defilements 雜染汚

defilements in the mind as numerous as the sands on the banks of the Ganges 染心恒沙

definite characteristic 決定相

definitely exists 決定有

definitely non-existent 永無

deliberation as its nature 思量爲性

delight in abandonment of afflictions 樂斷

delimited 有分限

deliverance of the great vehicle 大乘出離

deluded attachment 妄執

deluded conceptualization 妄想, 妄想分別, 妄想心, 妄想者

deluded consciousness 妄識

deluded knowledge 妄知

deluded mind 妄心

deluded thought 妄念

deludedly gives rise to 妄起

delusion ,

delusion and defilement 妄染

delusion and enlightenment are the same reality 迷悟一途

delusion from the stain of evil destinies 惡趣雜染愚癡

delusion in regard to common characteristics 共相惑

delusion of ignorance 無明惑

delusions at the highest level of awareness in the conditioned realm 有頂惑

delusive concept 妄法

delusory production 妄生

demon fire 鬼火

demon jailer 地獄卒, 獄卒, 那洛迦卒

demon shaped like a winter melon 冬瓜鬼

demon who inhales and eats 噏食

demon who inhales energy 吸氣鬼

demon who inhales human energy 吸人精氣

demonic views 鬼見

demons 阿落刹婆, 阿落迦婆

demons of the mind 心魔, 心魔賊

demon's palace 魔宮, 魔宮殿

demons shaped like men 人吉庶

demons that bring harm to people 鬼魅

dense forest 稠林

dense forest of the ten pernicious views 十種惡見稠林

denunciation of a good monk without due reason 無根重罪謗他

deny the law of cause and effect 因果撥無


depend on and stay 依主

depend upon

dependence 依據, 緣性

dependent and dependently arisen 緣性緣起

dependent and perfect 依圓

dependent co-arising 緣起法

dependent co-arising from the dharma-realm 法界緣起

dependent co-arising from the tathāgata-garbha 如來藏緣起

dependently arisen experiential realms 緣生法界

dependently arisen transmigration 緣起流轉

dependently-arisen existence 緣有

depending on conditions 待緣

depending on that 依彼

depending on the rank 依位

depending on what is heard 依所聞

depending on... 因待

depression 惛沈, 雲心

deputy 副富値

deputy abbot 代理方丈, 護理方丈

derivative 枝末

descend from the hall 下堂

descend into the world 降世, 降生

descend near 降臨

descendants of the moon 月種, 月統

descent from tuṣita heaven 從兜率天下

descent from Tuṣita Heaven into the womb of his mother Māya 入胎相

descent into the womb 降胎

descent of the Buddha's spirit into his mother's womb 降神母胎

desirable karmic retribution 可愛諸果異熟

desirable results 可愛異熟

desire , 貪愛, 貪欲, 阿羅伽

desire as ravenous as that of a hungry ghost 餓鬼愛

desire for experience 受用欲

desire for fragrance 香欲

desire for non-existence 無有愛

desire for the station of nothing whatsoever 無所有處欲

desire heaven 念天

desire of all three realms 三界欲

desire realm with the five destinies 欲界五趣地

desireless 無希望

desiring mind 有貪心

despise others 陵他

destiny as an animal 傍行, 帝利耶瞿楡泥伽

destiny of human rebirth 人趣

destroy the harmony of the saṅgha 鬥亂衆僧

destroyed 亡泯

destructible 可壞

destruction 壞滅

destruction caused by wind 風災

detailed explanation 別申

determination 勝解

determined 决定

determined practice 決定行

devils of the five aggregates 五種魔, 五蘊魔, 五衆魔, 五陰魔

devolution 下轉

devoted interest 印持, 阿毘目底

devoted to one aim or object or person or theory 一向定

devotion 信愛

devourer of energy 吸奪精氣, 嗚周何羅, 奪其精氣, 烏闍訶囉, 烏馱訶羅, 鄔斜訶羅, 食精氣者, 食精氣鬼

devourer of life 食壽命


dhāraṇī of the mind of great compassion 大悲心陀羅尼

dharma 駄摩

dharma assembly 法筵

Dharma Assembly of the Hundred Seats 百高座

dharma brother 法兄, 法眷

dharma child 法子

dharma citadel 法城

dharma craftsman 法匠

dharma discussion 法談

dharma entry of the single path 一道法門

dharma friend 法友

dharma gate of unity of character 一相法門

dharma heir 法嗣

dharma lecture on the merits of the unmoving tathāgata 不動講

dharma level of immovability 不動法

dharma of Acala 不動法

dharma of freedom from desire 離欲法

dharma seat 法席

dharma summer 法夏

dharma teaching of the one vehicle 一乘法門

dharma test 法擧揚

dharma transformation 法化

dharma treasure 法寶

dharma-abiding cognition 法住智

dharma-assembly of equality 無遮會

dharma-body 法身

dharma-consecration 法灌頂

dharma-donation 法布施

dharma-eye 法眼

dharma-gate of non-duality 不二法門

dharma-gate of unfathomable liberation 不可思議解脫法門

dharma-lineage 法脈

dharma-master of the great vehicle 大乘法師

dharma-meghā 法雲地

dharma-milk 法乳

dharma-nature according with conditions 法性隨緣

dharma-nature buddha 法性佛

dharma-realm 法界, 法界

dharmas exist 法有

dharmas that are at the level of warmth 煖法

dharma-seal 法印

dharma-source 法本

dharma-sword 法劍

dharma-talk 法語

dharma-treasure 法藏

Dharma-treasure Monastery 法寶寺刹

dharma-vessel 法器

dharma-wisdom 法智

diamond master 金剛阿闍梨

diamond store 金剛藏

diamond-like samādhi 金剛喩定


difference 異相

difference and non-difference 異不異性

difference between worldling and sage is in their correctness 凡聖依正

different and not-different 異不異

different in name but same in meaning 名別義通

differentiated rules of liberation for the eight orders 八種別解脫戒

differentiation into categories types 差別品類

differentiation of the three moral natures 三性分別

differing, but individually valid reasons that lead to the completion of contradictory propositions 決定相違, 相違決定

difficult causes and conditions of life 命難因緣

difficult to (put into) practice 難行

difficult to attain 難得

difficult to attain and difficult to realize 難得難證

difficult to avoid 難免

difficult to be borne 難可領受

difficult to believe 難信

difficult to comprehend 難解

difficult to distinguish 難別

difficult to eliminate 難斷

difficult to enter 難入

difficult to fathom 甚難思, 難可了, 難量

difficult to know 難了知

difficult to subdue 難伏

difficult to teach 難化

difficult to understand 難可了知

digression 傍論

diligence 精進, 精進力

diminished 減少

diminution 損減

direct awareness 現事

direct cause 正因, 近因

direct disciples and solitary realizers 聲聞辟支佛

direct insight 現量智

direct path to enlightenment that is hard for the mundane to believe 世間難信捷徑

direct testimony 現前毘尼

directive karma 引業, 牽引業, 牽生業

directive karma that produces results of a general character 引總報

directly apprehend 卽得

directly attain 便證

directly cognized object 現境

directly enters 卽入

directly from... 便從

directly realizes 直證

directly see the buddhas 現見諸佛

directly showing 單提

director 主事, 主宰

director of monks 僧都, 大僧正

director of monks in the capital 大僧統

director of the order 大沙門統

director of the three ceremonies 三禮師

dirt 囉惹

disables latencies 害隨眠

disadvantageous 無益

disadvantageous circumstances 不饒益事

disaffection with everything worldly 一切世間不可樂想

disagree with 乖離

disappear 化去

disappear for a long time 久沒

disappearance of the dharma 法滅

discard a (worn-out, lesser) teaching from the standpoint of a (new, more correct, deeper) teaching 廢立

discard relative truths in favor of the ultimate truth 廢權立實

discard the coarse 廢麤

discarding the prior rules 廢前教

disciple 徒弟

disciple(s) of the Buddha 佛弟子

disciples of the Buddha 佛聖弟子

disciplinary precepts 律儀戒

discipline of cow-like wandering 牛戒

disciplining of all sentient beings 一切有情調伏

disclose merit 顯德

disclosed 所開

disclosing reality through the eight negations 八不顯實

disclosing the provisional approach 開方便門

disclosure of the fundamental 顯本

discontent 不生喜

discouragement 心下劣, 心下劣性

discourse (upon)

discourse as desired 隨欲言教

discourses concerning renunciation 厭離言教

discourses that free one from obscurations and transcend attachment 離蓋趣愛言教

discriminate from moment to moment 念念分別

discriminated attachment to phenomena 分別法執

discriminated bases 分別所依

discriminated referents 分別所緣

discriminates words 名言分別

discriminating thought 分別心

discriminating wisdom 分別覺

discrimination 分別,

discrimination by ordinary beings 凡夫分別

discrimination held in common 共分別

discrimination in terms of attachment to phenomena 法執分別

discrimination of compounds 總執分別

discrimination of distinctions 差別分別

discrimination of essences 分別自體

discrimination of existence 有分別

discrimination of 'I' 我分別

discrimination of 'mine' 我所分別

discrimination of the mutual distinction between the attractive and the unattractive 愛不愛倶相違分別

discrimination of the unattractive 不愛分別

discrimination power 分別力

discriminative cognition 有分別智

discursive 有覺

discursive thought

discursively imagined character 有覺分別相

discuss 優婆提舍

discussing both (or all three, etc.) together 通而論之

discussion 談論

discussion of phenomena 事論

disease of affliction 煩惱病

disgust 心厭離

disgusted mind 厭心

disheartened , 儻然


disliked by people 機嫌

disorderly monk 亂僧

dispensary 湯藥寮

dispenser of medicines 侍藥, 指湯果, 湯藥侍者

disposition 隨眠

disputes and quarrels 鬥訟

dissatisfied 不足

disseminate the teachings 布教

dissemination of the teaching 傳道

dissension 鬥諍

dissimilar 不相似

dissimilar-partial, similar-whole 異品一分轉同品遍轉

dissipation 放逸

dissociation 離繫者

distaste for suffering 厭苦之心

distilled liquor 窣唎, 窣羅, 翻酒

distinct 不共, 現照

distinct categories of affliction 煩惱品別

distinct characteristics 不共相

distinct discrmination 不共分別

distinct practices 不共行

distinct teaching of the single vehicle 別教一乘

distinct teachings applicable to a certain group of students 不共教

distinction according to type 品類差別

distinction among the three vehicles 乘差別

distinction between (types of) afflictions 煩惱差別

distinction between the three vehicle teachings 乘差別性

distinction in (according to) meaning 義別

distinction in five natures 五姓各別, 五性差別

distinction in levels 地差別

distinction in skillful means for transforming the mind (?) 心轉善巧差別

distinction in the skillful means of the mind 心善巧差別

distinctions among the ten powers 十力差別

distinctions between people 人差別

distinctions in characteristics 相差別

distinctions in defining activities 行相差別

distinctions in meaning 義差別

distinctions in practice and realization 修證差別

distinctive characteristics 差別相

distinctive characteristics of things 事自相

distinctive transformations 不共變

distinguished according to type, class, category 品類分別

distinguishes all phenomena 差別諸法

distinguishing individual phenomena 分別法

distinguishing the middle from the extremes 中邊分別

distorted attention 倒作意

distorted thought 倒心


distraction 心亂, 散亂

distributor of missals, or liturgies 堂達

disturb the harmony 傷和氣

disturbed wholesomeness 亂善

disturbing 作亂, 阿鳩羅加羅

disturbing hindrances 惑障

disturbs body and mind 亂身心

diverge 乖離

divided thoughts 餘念

divination , , 占察

divine abode 天住

divine musician 健沓惒

divine vision 天眼, 天眼通

divinely abiding eyes 天住眼

do evil 作惡

do not simultaneously come into being 倶時不頓生

do not... 莫作

do(es) not reappear 不復轉

doctrinal study 義學

doctrine 教法

doctrine of particularity 同異句義

doctrine of the possessor of the ten powers 十力教

does not act unrestrainedly according to one's afflictions 不隨煩惱自在而行

does not actualize 不證, 非證得

does not again arise 不復生

does not attain freedom from... 不得解脫

does not become a buddha 不作佛

does not become buddha 不成佛

does not bring about 不得成

does not carry 不運

does not constitute a fallacy of contradiction 不成相違

does not constitute an objection 不成難

does not construe 不計

does not contemplate 不觀, 不觀察

does not cover 不覆

does not denigrate 不毀

does not despise oneself 不自輕蔑

does not develop in accordance with 不隨轉

does not diverge from 不乖離

does not do 不作

does not engage in 不趣入

does not enter 不入

does not enter nirvāṇa 不入涅槃

does not exist 無有

does not exist... 不在

does not explain 不說

does not extend to 不通

does not fall 不墮

does not fall into the extreme view of existence 不墮有

does not follow 不隨

does not fully pervade 不遍一切

does not give rise to 不起

does not give rise to faith 不生信心

does not go beyond 不過

does not grasp 不取

does not harbor desire(s) 不悕求

does not impede 不廢

does not increase 不增

does not know 不知

does not leave the path 不遠離道

does not lose 不失

does not make others experience lack, deficiency, etc. 不令乏短

does not manifest 不起

does not meet 不會

does not oppose 不反

does not oppress (harass, etc.) 不逼切

does not practice deception 不行欺誑

does not reach 不至

does not reappear 不復現

does not re-manifest 不復現前

does not repeat 不再

does not retrogress 不復退, 不退墮

does not revile (abuse) 不生誹謗

does not save 不度

does not say 不言

does not separate from 不遠離

does not stick 不著

does not swear to serve 不誓承事

does not use 不由

does not vow to receive and practice 不誓奉行

does not yet see 未見


dog's mind 狗心

doing without doing 不行而行

dominant effects 增上果

domineering spirit 豪勢

donation , 布施,

donation box 佛殿函

donation to monk's collection 香水錢

Dongshan's three pounds of flax 洞山麻三斤

donkey 誐囉娜

don't say... 莫作是言

dormant condition 隨眠


double negative 無不

double separation from desire 倍離欲

double-tongued 二語

doubly increasing numbers 倍上數

doubt ,

doubting 猶疑

down to 下至

downwards 向下

dragon books 龍章

dragon bowl 龍鉢

dragon coffins 龍龕

dragon kings and devas 龍天

dragon palace 龍宮

dragon soup 龍湯

dragon-flower assembly 龍華會

dragon-flower tree 龍華樹

dragon-pearl 龍珠

dragon-store 龍藏

draw incorrect conclusions 不如實簡擇

drawing near 來至

dream 夢境

dream and illusion 夢幻

dream-vision 夢見


drink and food 飮食, 飲食

drinker of light 飮光


drowsiness 睡眠

drum of faith 信鼓

drum of the great teaching 大法鼓

drum-god 鼓天

drum-music and singing with stringed instruments 鼓樂絃歌


dry container 乾器

dry wood 乾木

dual adornment 二嚴

dual self-nature 二自性

due to ignorance 因無明

due to their predilection to arise 從定起已

dull faculties 鈍根

dull intelligence 鈍慧

dumb ,

dumb sheep 啞羊, 啞羊僧

during all twelve time periods of the day 二六時中

during meditative absorption 入定時

dust of the afflictions 煩惱塵, 煩惱塵埃

duty 保任

dwelling 室宅

dwelling at the foot of a tree 樹下坐

dwelling in a hermitage 住阿練若處

dyed garments 染色衣, 染衣


each approach 門門

each distinction 各差別

each distinguished from the other 各各差別

each has three 各有三

each individual one 一一各

each single one has... 一一各有

each vehicle 乘乘

early Buddhism 原始佛教

earnestly 無无, 無無

earthly laws and punisments 王法牢獄

earthly pollution 俗塵

earthly vision 肉眼


eat honey 食蜜

eat simply 喫素

eating implements 倶夜羅


ecclesiastical officials 上座

edible 嚼食

effected 得成熟

effective knowledge 善知

effects (results) experienced 受用果

effects 果報

effects of religious practice 沙門果

effects that are directly attributable to a certain cause as a basis 依果

effects that are directly conditioned from their causes 習果

efficacy 利益

effort 精進, 精進力

effort and patience 進忍

effortlessness 無功用

egocentrism 我執


eight abandonments 八背捨

eight aggregates 八乾, 八犍度

eight amazing characteristics of the ocean 大海八不思議

eight approaches to two kinds of benefit 八門兩益

eight aspects 八相

eight aspects of completion 八圓

eight aspects of liberation 八解

eight aspects of the Buddha's life 八相成道, 八相示現

eight assemblies in seven different places 七處八會

eight attributes 八功德

eight awarenesses 八覺

eight awarenesses of great persons 八大人念, 八大人覺, 八生法

eight bad times 八非時

eight billion eons 八十億劫

eight billion, four hundred million thoughts 八億四千萬念

eight bodhisattvas 八菩薩

eight buddhas 八佛

eight burning hells 八熱地獄

eight cases of nouns 八囀, 八囀聲

eight cases of nouns in Sanskrit 八轉聲

eight causes of giving 八種布施, 八種施

eight changeable mental factors 八不定

eight children 八童子

eight cold and eight hot 八寒八熱

eight cold hells 八寒冰地獄, 八寒地獄

eight colored pennants 八色幡

eight commandments 八不可越法, 八不可過法, 八敬戒

eight commandments specifically for nuns 八敬法

eight components of the proof 八能立

eight conditions of no leisure time 八無暇

eight confusions 凡小八倒

eight consciousnesses 八識

eight consciousnesses are one in essence 八識體一

eight defilements 八穢

eight devalokas 八天

eight dharmas 八法

eight difficulties 八惡, 八難, 八難處, 八難解法

eight directions above and below 八方上下

eight divisions of the teaching according to Tiantai 天台八教

eight errors 八倒

eight excellent liberations 八勝解

eight explanatory phrases 八言說句

eight factors of a Buddhist syllogism 八成

eight falls 八墮

eight fetters 八纏

eight fields of merit 八福田

eight flavors 八味

eight fortunate rebirths 八福生處

eight grave precepts 八尊重法

eight great Avalokiteśvaras 八大觀音

eight great bodhisattvas 八大菩薩

eight great children 八大童子

eight great dragon kings 八大龍王

eight great hells 八大, 八大地獄

eight great illustrious vajra kings 八大金剛明王

eight great luminous kings 八大明王

eight great officers 八大執事

eight great powers of sovereign self 八大在我

eight great sacred stūpas 八大靈塔

eight groups of demon followers 八部鬼衆

eight holy truths 八聖諦

eight hours 八時

eight impurities 八不淨

eight included continents 八中洲

eight incorrect views 八不正見

eight inexpressibles 八不思議

eight intersections 八交道

eight inverted views 八顚倒

eight investigations 八校

eight kinds 八種

eight kinds of beings 八部, 八部衆

eight kinds of deluded perception 八妄想

eight kinds of deluded, or mistaken notions 八種妄想

eight kinds of discrimination 八分別, 八種分別

eight kinds of eloquence 八辯

eight kinds of evil (errors) 八邪

eight kinds of fresh winds 八種淸風

eight kinds of great bitter suffering 八大辛苦

eight kinds of great unimpeded subjectivity 八大自在我

eight kinds of gruel 八種粥

eight kinds of liberation 八解脫

eight kinds of matrices 八藏

eight kinds of minor marks 八種隨好

eight kinds of no rest 八不閑

eight kinds of prediction 八種授記

eight kinds of pride 八慢, 八憍

eight kinds of propositions 八門, 因明八義

eight kinds of rules 八種法

eight kinds of spiritual beings 八部鬼神

eight kinds of suffering 八苦

eight kinds of surpassing things 八種勝法

eight kinds of unimpeded subjectivity 八自在我

eight kinds of unimpededness 八自在

eight kinds of wisdom 八智

eight liberations 八惟務, 八惟無

eight magic words to be placed on eight parts of the body 八字布字

eight Māras 八魔

eight misbehaviors 八波羅夷

eight misleading concepts 八迷

eight negations 八不, 八遮

eight negations of the middle way 八不中道

eight noble truths 八諦

eight non-obstructions 八無礙

eight oceans 八海

eight parts of the prātimokṣa

eight patriarch lineage 八祖相承

eight patterns of mindfulness 八念法, 八念門

eight petal court 八葉院

eight petals 八葉

eight phases of the Buddha's life 化生八相

eight philosophies and nine schools 八家九宗

eight phrases 八句義

eight possessions 八事隨身

eight precepts 八戒, 八戒齋, 八支齋, 八關齋, 八齋戒

eight precepts of a one day vow holder 八關齋戒

eight princes 八王子

eight prohibitions 八禁

eight propositions in two kinds of making-aware 八門二悟

eight purifications 八齋

eight rafts 八筏

eight ranks 八位, 八輩

eight renunciations 八棄

eight rivers 八水

eight royal days 八王日

eight sages 八聖

eight schools 八宗, 八家

eight schools and nine schools 八宗九宗

eight sensations 八觸

eight special rules for nuns 比丘尼八敬戒

eight spoke wheel 八輪

eight stages of the human fetus 八位胎藏

eight stems 八支

eight stūpas 八塔

eight supernatural powers 八變化

eight talas tall 八多羅樹

eight teachers 八師

eight teaching classifications 八教

eight times when one doesn't hear 八不聞時節

eight tolerances 八人, 八忍

eight tones 八音

eight trances 八定

eight transformations 八神變

eight treatises 八論

eight truly precious things 八重無價, 八重眞寶

eight untranscendables 八不可越

eight victorious stages 八勝處

eight views outside of the middle path 八不中觀

eight virtues 八德

eight winds 八風

eight word dhāraṇī of Mañjuśrī 八字文殊法

eight words 八字

eight, five, three and two 八五三二

eight-armed celestial 八臂天

eighteen (non-Buddhist) classics (of Indian philosophy) 十八大經, 十八明處, 十八經

eighteen 三六, 十八

eighteen arhats 十八應眞, 十八羅漢, 十八阿羅漢

eighteen aspects of emptiness 十八空

eighteen brahma heavens 十八梵天

eighteen Brahmā heavens 十八梵

eighteen brahmalokas 十八生處

eighteen compositional elements of cognition of the referential world 十八界

eighteen days 十八日

eighteen distinctive characteristics of the Buddha 十八不共法

eighteen heavens 十八天

eighteen layers of hells 十八重地獄

eighteen learners 十八有學

eighteen nikāya schools 十八部

eighteen nikāya schools and five vinaya schools 二九五部

eighteen paths 十八道

eighteen perfections 十八圓淨

eighteen perfections of a buddha's sambhogakāya 十八圓滿

eighteen possessions of a monk 十八物

eighteen Sanskrit verb endings 二九韻

eighteen sects 十八宗

eighteen stages 十八位

eighteen wise sages 十八賢聖

eighteen worthies 十八境界, 十八賢

eighteenth vow 十八願

eightfold beings that form the assemblies of the buddha's sermons 八部大衆

eightfold correct path 八正道

eightfold correct path; eightfold holy path; eightfold noble path 八正門, 八游行, 八由行, 八直行, 八直道, 八聖道支, 八道船, 八道行

eightfold path 八道

eighth day of the fourth month 四月初八日

eighth ground 八地

eighth month 八月

eighth, eighteenth, and twenty-eighth days 三八日

eight-road intersection 八種交道

eighty 八十

Eighty fascicle version of the Huayan jing 八十華嚴

eighty minor marks 八十種好, 八十隨形好

eighty one teachings 八十一法

eighty recitation vinaya 八十誦律

eighty thousand 八十千, 八萬

eighty-eight afflicted mental states 八十八使

eighty-four thousand 八萬四千

eighty-four thousand teachings or lessons credited to the Buddha as a cure of all sufferings 八萬四千法蘊

eighty-one kinds of illusion 八十一品思惑

eighty-thousand and twelve 八萬十二

eighty-thousand duties 八萬威儀

eighty-thousand eons 八萬劫

either untrue 隨一不成

elaborated at length in order 廣說展轉

elbows and knees on the ground 五輪倶屈

elder brother

elder sister 大姊


element of wind 風界

eleven 十一

eleven abodes 十一住

eleven consciousnesses 十一識

eleven debilitating hindrances 十一種麁重, 十一麁重

eleven good mental factors 十一善

eleven kinds of emptiness 十一空

eleven stages 十一地

eleven wisdoms 十一智

eleven-faced Avalokiteśvara 十一面觀音

eliminate both 雙除

eliminate calamity 除災

eliminate five classes together 五部合斷, 五部雜斷

eliminate obstructions 除蓋障

eliminated by contemplation 思惟所斷

eliminated without remainder 無餘斷

eliminates seeds 斷種子

eliminates the afflictions of the path of cultivation 斷修惑

elimination of afflictive hindrances 煩惱障斷

elimination of latent afflictions 隨眠斷

elimination through being on guard 防護斷, 隨護斷

eliminativism 斷見

elucidate the subtle 論細

embodiment of samaya 三昧耶身

embryo 凝滑, 羯邏藍

emerald 琉璃, 琉璃寶, 阿濕喝揭婆

emerge from meditation 出觀

eminent monk 高僧

emits light outwardly 外發光明

emperor with the Buddha-mind 佛心天子

employed 爲成辦

emptiness , 空性, 空無

emptiness absorption 空三摩地

emptiness and no-self 空無我

emptiness as objective condition 空緣

emptiness everywhere 空一切處, 空徧處

emptiness is form 空卽是色

emptiness of all phenomena 一切法空, 諸法空

emptiness of compounded phenomena 有爲空

emptiness of dharmas 法空

emptiness of discreet phenomena 事空

emptiness of emptiness 空空

emptiness of non-existence 無法空, 無物空

emptiness of non-existence and existence 無法有法空

emptiness of other-nature 他性空

emptiness of person 人空

emptiness of phenomena 法空性

emptiness of the external 外空

emptiness of uncompounded phenomena 無爲空

emptiness only 單空


empty and existent 空有

empty aspect of thusness 空眞如

empty place 空處

encircle 圍遶

encoffin 入龕

encompassing all things under heaven without discrimination 覆載

encourage goodness 勸善

end of the retreat 座臘

end of the summer meditation retreat 夏滿, 夏竟

endanger oneself 危身

endangering 危害

endowed qualities 具功德

endowed with , 具有

endowed with good qualities 有德

endowed with wisdom 具足智慧


endowment for the departed 無盡財

enduring evil 魔忍

enemy 設覩嚕, 設都嚧

engaged in the vehicle of the disciples 發趣聲聞乘

engaged with one's worldly occupation 營世務

engages in unwholesome activities 行惡行

engaging cultivation 上品修

enjoyable activity 樂行

enjoyably takes rebirth 樂受生

enjoying and abiding in 受用居處

enjoyment body 受用身

enjoyment for others 他樂

enjoyment in the present life 現世樂

enjoyment land 受用土

enjoyment of defilement 雜染愛樂

enjoyment of evil livelihood 喜樂邪命

enjoyment of sensual desires 受用欲具

enjoyment of the dharma 樂法

enlighten 開道

enlightened by contemplation on dependent arising 緣覺

enlightened cognition of the tathāgata(s) 如來菩提智

enlightened king of the nine classes (of the Pure Land) 九品覺王

enlightening acts 菩提行

enlightening being 菩薩

enlightenment 菩提, 覺悟

enlightenment of mental expansion 出到菩提

enlightenment of mind control 伏心菩提

enlightenment of the buddha(s) 佛菩提

enlightenment of the solitary realizer 緣覺菩提

enlightenment of the tathāgata(s) 如來菩提

enlightenment of the three buddha-bodies 三佛菩提


enough 已足

entangle 牽纏

entangle each other 交絡

enter and abide 入住

enter into belief 入信

enter into concentration 入定

enter into extinction 入寂

enter into meditation 入靜慮

enter into nirvāṇa 入涅槃

enter into quietude 入靜

enter into reality 入眞

enter into the formless concentration 入無色定

enter sagehood 入聖

enter the gate of non-duality 入不二門

enter the gate of the principle of non-duality 入不二法門

enter the mind 入心

enter the mountains 入山

enter the mountains and train in the religious path 入山學道

enter the room 入室

enter the saṃgha 入衆

entered 入已

enterer into the stage of a foe-destroyer 阿羅漢向

entering cognition only 入唯識

entering into the concentration of total extinction of mental activity 入滅盡定

entering marvelous enlightenment in a single lifetime 一生入妙覺

entering the hall 入堂

entering the no-thought concentration 入無想定

entering the text and explaining 入文解釋

enters into the clear observation of the truth(s) 入諦現觀

enters into the cognition of the ultimate truth of all phenomena 入一切法第一義智

enters nirvāṇa 入於涅槃, 趣涅槃

enters the stage of the tathāgata 入如來地

entrenched afflictions 住地煩惱

entrenched ignorance 住地無明

entrenchment of all views 一切見住地

entrenchment of attachment to objects in the formless realm 無色界住地


entrust to 付屬, 附囑

entrustment of the buddhas with the transmission of the teaching 付囑

entry into provisional activity 出假行

entry into the great grounds 入大地

entry into the stage of the non-returner 不還向

entry into the third bodhisattva ground 入第三地

entry into the true nature and escaping birth 入正性離生

entry of great compassion 大智慧門

environmental cause 方便因

envy ,

eon 大劫

eons numberless as the sands of the Ganges 沙劫

eons of decrease 减劫

eons of its persistence 住劫

eons of nothingness 空劫

epitaph 墓碑銘

epithet 名號

equal 三迷,

equal to oneself 如自己平等

equality in terms of signlessness 無相平等性

equality of all sentient beings 一切衆生平等

equality of phenomena 法平等性

equality of phenomena in terms of their non-arising 不生平等性

equality of the nature of reality 法性平等

equalize 齊度

equally accept 齊許

equally accept as teacher 共許爲師

equanimity 行捨

eradicated 拔除

erasure of conditions 緣銷


erroneous appearance 妄現

erroneous or pseudo-perception 似現量

erroneous view 邪見

error (fallacy) of contradiction with experience 現量相違過

error in regard to simultaneous coming into being 倶時頓生起過

errors 過惡

escape 出要,

escape from cyclical existence 免輪廻

escape from suffering 出苦, 離苦

escape from this defiled world 厭離穢土

escapes cyclic existence 出生死

esoteric 祕密

esoteric commentary 口疏, 奥疏, 奧疏

esoteric dhāraṇī spells of the messengers of Akṣobhya 不動使者陀羅尼祕密法

esoteric incantation 云何唄

esoteric ritual for bringing prosperity 布瑟徵迦

esoteric ritual for exorcising 阿畏遮迦

esoteric ritual for prosperity 補瑟徵迦

esoteric ritual for seeking the aid of buddhas and bodhisattvas 伐施迦囉軌

esoteric ritual for summoning good fortune 阿羯沙尼

esoteric speech 口密, 密語, 語密

esoteric spells of the messengers of Akṣobhya 不動使者祕密法

essence of mind 心體

essence of phenomena always existing 法體恒有

essence of the hindrances 障體

essence of the precepts 戒體

essence-function 體用

essential emptiness 體空

essential portion 度科

essential teaching 宗教

essentials for practice 行要


establish a school 立教

establish and refute (a doctrine) 立破

established 有制立

established as it should be 如應安立

established by distinctions 差別建立

established four truths 安立四諦

established truth(s) 作諦

establishes names 施設名

establishing the correct dharma 立正

establishing the principle 立理

establishing through refutation 反成

estimate possessions 估衣

eternal and unchanging 常住不變

eternal life 永生

eternal peace 常寂

eternal, absolute conditions separated from arising, changing and ceasing 無爲法

eternalism 常論

eternally abiding 常住

eternally abiding single aspect 常住一相

eternally abiding without lapse 常住不滅

eternally present monks implements in the ten directions 十方常住僧物, 十方現前僧物

ethics 倫理

eunuch 不男, 伊梨沙般荼迦, 半挓迦, 半擇, 半擇迦, 半自截, 黃門

eunuch by castration 犍不男

even a simple color or smell does not lack the middle way 一色一香無非中道

even a thought 乃至一念

even if 設使

even teeth 齒齊平


evening before the winter solstice 冬夜

evening joining tree 夜合樹

evening service 夕座

evenly filled 平滿

even-mindedness 心平等


every hair is alive 一一毛生

every kind 各種

every mind 心心

every realm 徧界

everything in the three realms is nothing but consciousness 一切三界但唯有識

everything is only existent in consciousness 一切皆唯有識

everywhere 一切處

evidential aspect of the turning of the wheel of the dharma 證相轉, 證轉


evil activities 魔事業

evil adherents of the two vehicles 二乘惡人

evil demon

evil demons and heretics 魔外

evil desires 耶欲

evil destinies 惡趣, 惡趣

evil forms of discipline 不善律儀

evil karma 不善行, 魔事, 魔業

evil livelihood 惡行

evil livelihood heretics 阿耆毘伽

evil non-Buddhists 外道惡人

evil rules 魔戒

evil speaking 語惡

evil view 邪見

evocation 隨引

evolve together 倶轉

exactly mind 卽心

exactly through these works 卽以是事

example exhibiting the same qualities 同類譬喩

examples and testimony 例證

exceedingly patient 上忍

exceedingly rare 希有

excellent 好好

excellent enlightenment 妙菩提

excellent flavor 上味

excellent immovable stage 不動勝道

excellent in every detail 隨形好

excellent liberation 善解脫

excellent observing awareness 善觀察覺

excellent observing awareness of all knowables 一切所知善觀察覺

excellent person 妙好人

excellent personage 上人

excellent practices of advancement on the Path 進道勝行

excellent sages 勝聖者

excellent speech 言巧妙

excellent teaching 妙旨

excellent vision 善見

excellent wisdom 善慧, 妙明, 妙智, 巧妙智, 巧智慧

excellent! 善哉

excellent, excellent! 善哉善哉

except for

excluded 所障隔

exclusively non-empty 一向不空

exclusivist attachment to the precepts 獨頭戒取

excommunication of an unrepentant monk 不懺擧

excrescence 佛頂骨

excursions out of the four gates 四門出遊

excused monk 免僧

exercising excellent wisdom and supernatural cognition 妙智神通行

exhale 出息

exhale and inhale 呼吸


existence disconnected from language 離言諸有體事

existence of a self 有我

existence of an effect without a cause 無因有果

existence of remainder 有餘

existence where you shouldn't be 不可有

existing previously in the past 隨先過去

exists sufficiently 稍有

exoteric texts 顯典, 顯經

expand and contract 卷舒

expanded 裴佛略

expectation as cause 觀待因

expediency 方計

expedient 方計

expedient means 傴和倶舍羅, 傴和拘舍羅, 方便

expedient means of fundamental practice 行根本方便

expedient means that are attained 得方便

expedient wisdom 權智

expedients used before the Contemplation Sūtra 化前方便

expels the linking to the provisional dharma of sentient beings 遣有情假法緣

expended 窮盡

experience of worldly pleasures 世樂受

experience pain and pleasure 受苦樂

experience pleasing results 取愛果

experience pleasure 受樂

experience suffering and distress 受諸苦惱

experienced by the mind 心所領納

experiences direct and valid perception 現量智生

experiences extreme bliss 受極樂

experiences pain and pleasure 受用苦樂

experiential consciousnesses 受識

experiential entry into buddha-truth 證入

experiential realm of the solitary realizer 獨覺界

experiential wisdom 如量智

expiration and inspiration 阿那波那, 阿那阿波那

explain (in detail)


explain by contrast 互論

explain fully 具說, 說通

explain in detail 廣說

explain in outline form 略而說之

explain its attributes 說其相

explain the meaning 詮旨

explain this teaching 說此法

explained 所示

explained as... 說爲

explained before 先說

explained by other masters 餘師說

explained in a general manner 總而言之

explained in detail, up to ... 廣說乃至

explained like this 作是說

explained like this, in detail, up to... 如是廣說乃至

explained together 具演說


explaining the precepts 說戒

explains as it really is 如實說

explains this way 如是說

explanation of the desire 說欲

explicates according to the text 隨文解釋

explicates following the text 隨文釋

explicating the meanings 釋義

explication 義釋

explicit teaching 了義說

exponents of mouth power 口力論師

expository commentary 義疏

expound the correct teaching 說正法

express clearly

express teaching 顯露教

expressed 所言說

expressed and unexpressed precepts 表無表戒

expressed precepts 作戒

exquisite clothing 珍御服

extend to

extended all over 漠漠

extending to the limit of the future 窮未來際

extensive analysis 廣分別義

extensive discourse 廣門

extensive explanation 廣解

extensive teaching on the vinaya 廣教

extensively clarifies 廣明

extensively distinguished 廣分別

extensively explain 廣辯

extensively fulfilling 廣恣

extensively save (or teach) sentient beings 廣度

extent of the future 未來際

external conceptions 外想

external conditions 他緣

external container world 外器

external cravings 外貪欲

external fire ritual 外護摩

external marks 外相

external objects 外塵, 外境

external protection 外護

external purity 外淨

external realm 外境

external self 外我

external sons 外子

external sustenance 外食

external things 外物

external Vajradhātu court 外金剛部院

external Vajradhātu group 外金剛部

external worldlings 外凡夫

externally disciplined 外乞

extinction 有滅, 涅槃

extinction of afflictions 煩惱盡

extinction of causes 緣滅

extinguish 伏滅

extinguished forever without remainder 永滅無餘

extinguished without remainder 滅無餘, 無餘滅

extinguishes without remainder 盡無餘

extol 標擧

extol and make offerings 讚嘆供養

extol merit 讚功德

extraordinary 特勝

extreme of Eternalism 常邊

extreme of existence 有邊

extreme of the reification of phenomena 增益法邊

extreme of the repudiation of phenomena 損減法邊

extreme view 邊見

extremely numerous 微塵數

extremely rare 希奇

extremely scorching hot hell 大熱地獄

extremely subtle afflictions 微細煩惱

extremely subtle associative thought 微細想

extremely subtle hindrance 微細障

extremely subtle latent afflictions; tendencies 微細隨眠

extremely subtle teaching 微妙言說

eye ,

eye able to distinguish milk from water 乳水眼

eye free of taint 離垢眼

eye of flesh 內眼

eye of the triple world 三界眼

eye of wisdom 智眼

eye-begging brahman 乞眼婆羅門

eyes with light cataracts 輕翳眼

fabricated 假構

face stone 面石

facial hair (beard, etc.) and hair on the top of the head 鬚髮

facing north 北度


factor of warmth 燸法

factor that follows closely 彼隨法鄰近

factors associated with mind 心相應所, 心相應行

factors eliminated in the path of seeing 見所斷法

factors not directly associated with a specific mental function 不相應行法, 心不相應行

factors not directly associated with mind 心不相應法

factors of dissimilarity 不同分

faculties 依根

faculty of faith 信根

faculty of joy 喜根

faculty of mindfulness 念根

faculty of pleasure 樂根

faculty of the power of having learned (the Four Noble Truths), 已知根

faculty of the power of perfect knowledge (of the Four Noble Truths) 具知根

failure and success 窮達

faint darkness 微闇

faith , 信心

faith and alms 信施

faith and contemplation 信現觀

faith and morality 信戒

faith and practice 信行

faith and resolve 信勝解

faith and wisdom 信慧

faith as joy 信樂

faith foremost 信首

faith from hearing form others 從他信

faith is the source of the path and the mother of merit 信爲道元功德母

faithless women 無信女

fall into 陷墜

fall into disuse

fallacious example 似喩

fallacious negative exemplification 似異法喩

fallacious positive exemplification 似同法喩

fallacious proposition 似宗

fallacious reason 似因

fallacy of being doubtful 猶豫不成過

fallacy of both being untrue 兩倶不成過

fallacy of contradicting the inference 比量相違過

fallacy of contradiction to common sense 世間相違過

fallacy of either untrue 隨一不成過

fallacy of inconclusiveness 不定過

fallacy of non-agreement on both 倶不極成過

fallacy of non-proof in the reason 不成過

fallacy of the reason being share by both positive and negative examples 共不定過

fallacy wherein differing, but individually valid reasons lead to the completion of contradictory propositions 決定相違過, 相違決定過

fallacy wherein the specifying predicate is not mutually accepted 能別不極成, 能別不極成過

falls into negative rebirths 墮惡趣

false 虛妄, 虛謬

false accusation 誣言

false discrimination 亂識, 妄分別

false objects 妄塵

false speech 亡語, 妄舌, 妄語

false views 妄見

falsely imputed notion of difference 差別妄想

fame 名聲

fame and profit 名利

fame and wealth 名聞利養


family deity 家神

family of the tathāgata 如來種性

family style 家風

family temple 香華院

famine 飢饉

farming and commerce 營農商估

fast day 逋沙他

fast-burning incense 速香

fate 運命

father of all the living 一切衆生之父

fault in a subsequent existence 後法罪

fault of using one for another 互用罪

faultless 無缺, 無過失

faultless aspiration 無倒意樂

faultless dedication of merits 無倒迴向

faultless taking in 無倒攝受

faults in the manifest present and in a subsequent existence 現法後法罪

faults in the present world 現法罪

faulty 有過失

favorable circumstances 緣機

fear 怖畏生

fear of lacking a means of livelihood 不活畏

fear of lacking a means of living 不活恐怖

fear of speaking to a large audience 大衆威德畏

fearless 不怖, 無驚懼

fearless kindness 無畏憐愍

fearless(ness)(ly) 無怯懼

fearlessness 無怖畏, 無畏心

fearlessness resultant from having full understanding of all phenomena 一切智無所畏

feast for monks 大齋, 大齋會

feel experience, undergo suffering 受苦

feeling 受蘊

fellow students 同學

female beauty 女色

female celestials 女天

female lay disciples 優波夷

female lay follower 女居士

female lay practitioner 信女, 優婆斯

female messenger 訥帝

female novice 式叉尼, 式叉摩那尼

female sage 仙女

female transformation body 變化女

female unicorn

festival at the end of the summer retreat 三摩近離

festival for the birth of the Buddha 釋尊祭

festival of the hungry ghosts 百衆

fettered mind 心縛

fever 熱病

field of merit 檀嚫, 福田

field of merit of post-learners 無學人田

field of virtue 德田

field of visible form 色處

fields and activities 依轉

fields and factors 處界

fields of knowledge 吠陀論

fields overseer 田頭

fields, manure, and water 田糞水

fierce tiger 猛虎

fifteen 十五

fifteen honored ones 十五尊

fifteen images of Avalokiteśvara 十五尊觀音

fifteen kinds of aspiration 十五意樂

fifteen kinds of wisdom and elimination 十五智斷

fifteen views (?) 十五意

fifteenth day of the first lunar month 上元

fifteenth day of the seventh lunar month 中元

fifteenth day of the tenth moon 下元

fifth great court 五大院

fiftieth time around 五十展轉

fifty 五十

fifty evils 五十惡

fifty heavenly offerings 五十天供

fifty meritorious virtues 五十功德

fifty methods 五十法

fifty minor eons 五十小劫

fifty-eight precepts 五十八戒

fifty-five genuine teachers 五十五善知識

fifty-five sages 五十五聖

fifty-one 五十一

fifty-one mental factors 五十一心所有法

fifty-three buddhas 五十三佛

fifty-three honored ones 五十三尊

fifty-three wise teachers 五十三參, 五十三智識

fifty-two groups of beings 五十二衆

fifty-two kinds of beings 五十二類

fifty-two kinds of offerings 五十二種供物

fifty-two stages 五十二位

fig tree 優曇鉢羅

figure of the tathāgata 如來像

fill their bellies 令飽滿

fills them up 令充足

final 最後, 最末後

final age 末劫

final body 最後身

final constituents 後邊依

final elimination 畢竟斷

final existence 最後有

final instant 後刹那

final limit 後邊

final nirvāṇa 究竟涅槃

final rebirth 最後生

final stage 究竟地

final state of mind 最後心

final taking in of sentient beings by bodhisattvas 最後攝受

final teaching of the single vehicle 一乘究竟教

final thought-moment 最後一念, 最後念

finality 乞叉, 乞察, 乞灑, 吃灑

fine clothes 妙衣

fine trappings 珍御


finish eating 飯食訖

finished 已竟

finishing one's rounds of begging for food 乞已

finite 有盡, 有限

fire altar 光明壇

fire patrol 巡火

fire-eater 羯羅微


firewood maintainer 柴頭

firmly 凝然

firmly abide 凝住

firmly abiding in attentive contemplation 凝住覺觀

firmness in cultivation 修堅

firm-willed person 丈夫志幹

first 最初

first and last 初後

first anniversary of a death 一囘周, 一囘忌, 周忌

first arises 先起

first concentration 初靜慮

first cultivates 先修

first fetal stage 羯羅藍

first meditation heaven 初禪天

first originally inexistent 先無

first stage of uncontaminated practice 初無漏

first the reason, then the premise 先因後宗

first the thesis, then the reason 先宗後因

first turning of the wheel of the dharma 初轉法輪

fish , 麻蹉

fish eggs 魚子

fish-board 魚板

fish-drum 魚鼓

fittingly attain 隨順獲得


five (part) dharma-body 五法身

five , 半者

five abodes 五居

five afflictions of advanced practitioners 五利使

five afflictions that affect beginning practitioners 五鈍使

five Āgamas 五阿含, 五阿含經

five aggregates 五蘊, 五陰, 五陰法, 五隱

five aggregates are without self 五蘊無我

five and eighth consciousnesses 五八識

five angry ones 五忿怒

five approaches to meditation 五停心觀

five aromas 五香

five arrows 五箭

five aspects 五種相

five attendants 五侍者

five authorities 五量

five authorities of the teaching 五部教主

five bandits with drawn swords 五拔刀賊

five basic afflictions 五根本

five bhikṣus 五比丘

five blessings 五福

five bodhisattvas of great power 五大力尊, 五大力菩薩

five bodies 五身

five bonds 五結

five buddha attendants 五佛頂, 五佛頂尊, 五頂輪王

five buddhas 五佛

five buddhas as incarnations of distinct types of wisdom 五智如來

five buddhas in five bodies 五佛五身

five buddhas of meditation 五禪定佛

five buddhas of the five directions 五方五智

five burnings 五燒

five cataracts 五翳

five categories of dharmas 五法藏

five categories of phenomena and principle 事理五法

five categories of precepts 五篇

five causes 五因

five celestials 五乘居衆, 五天, 五天子, 五那含天子

five ceremonies on the altar 五壇法

five characteristics 五相

five characteristics of a buddha's nature 五佛性

five chewing foods 半者佉但尼, 半者珂但尼

five circuits of cause and effect 五周因果

five classes 五品

five colors 五色

five colors of the faculties 五根色

five compound colors 五間色

five comrades 五倶, 五倶倫, 五倶輪, 五拘鄰

five conditions 五緣

five connotations of the 'debilitating' aspects of affliction 五種麤重

five consciousnesses 五識

five contemplations 五觀

five correct practices 五正行

five coverings 五陰蓋

five delusions 五惑

five desires 五情, 五欲

five destinies 五趣, 五道

five destinies and six destinies 五道六道

five destinies of birth and death 五趣生死

five devotions 五專

five disciples 五佛子

five doctrinal schools and nine mountain schools 五教九山

five doctrinal schools and two (meditational) schools 五教兩宗

five dreams 五夢

five edible fruits and grains 食物五果

five eights 五八

five elements 五大

five elements and six elements 五輪六大

five emptinesses 五空

five entrenchments of afflictio 五住地惑

five entrenchments of affliction 五住

five entrenchments of affliction; five entrenched afflictions 五住地, 五住地煩惱

five eons of deliberation 五劫思惟

five evil activities 五惡, 五種惡

five evil destinies 五惡趣

five evil views 五惡見

five evolutions 五轉

five evolutions of the colors 五轉色

five excellent causes 五增上緣, 五種增上緣

Five existences within the fourth meditation 五淨居天

five external objects 五境

five extremes 五邉

five eyes 五眼

five faculties 五根

five faculties of cognition 五知根

five families of tathāgatas 五族如來

five faults 五失

five fears 五畏

five fears affecting bodhisattvas 五怖畏

five fields of knowledge 五明論

five flavors 五味

five gates of mindfulness 五念門

five good (practices) 五善

five graduated series of universes 五重世界

five grave bases of training 五種學處

five grave disciplines 五種學

five great colors 五大色

five great dragon kings 五大龍王, 五類龍王

five great gifts 五大施

five great guardian kings 五大明王, 五部忿怒

five great honored ones 五大尊

five great Mahāyāna sūtras 五部大乘經

five great messengers 五大使者

five great moon wheels 五大月輪

five grounds of reliance 五所依土

five groups 五部

five groups of the hundred dharmas 五位百法

five hardnesses 五堅固

five harmonizations 五調子

five heavenly messengers 五天使者

five heavens of no-return 五不還天

five heavens of the non-returners 五那含天

five heavy bondages 五重滯

five heinous crimes 五逆, 五逆罪

five heinous crimes and ten unwholesome kinds of behavior 五逆十惡

five higher bonds of desire still existing in the upper realms 五順上分結

five higher-level bonds 五上分結

five hindrances 五障

five hindrances and three subordinates 五障三從

five honored buddhas 五尊佛

five houses 五家

five houses and seven schools 五家七宗

five hundred 五百

five hundred arhats 五百羅漢

five hundred generations 五百世, 五百生

five hundred generations without hands 五百世無手

five hundred great arhats 五百大羅漢

five hundred lesser vehicle (sects) 五百小乘

five hundred lives as a fox 五百生野狐

five hundred precepts 五百戒

five hundred questions 五百問, 五百問事

five hundred sects 五百異部, 五百部

five hundred yojanas 五百由旬

five immeasurables 五無量

five improper foods 五不正食

five Indias 五印, 五印度

five indications of approaching death 衰相

five instances of no-mind 五位無心

five internal selves (skandhas ?) 內五

five jeweled vases 五寶甁

five kinds 五種

five kinds of acts 五種行

five kinds of adamantine messengers 五種金剛使

five kinds of almsgiving 五種布施

five kinds of altar ceremonies 五種壇法

five kinds of authorities of the doctrine 五種法師

five kinds of bells 五種鈴

five kinds of celestials 五種天, 五類天

five kinds of cognition 五智

five kinds of consciousness-only 五種唯識

five kinds of consecration 五種灌頂

five kinds of dharma-body 五種法身

five kinds of dharmas 五法

five kinds of distraction 五散亂, 五種散亂

five kinds of enlightenment 五菩提, 五覺

five kinds of entrenchments 五種住地

five kinds of epSeeics 五種惡病

five kinds of esoteric ceremony 五種修法

five kinds of evil acts leading to rebirth in the unremitting hell 五無間業, 五無間罪

five kinds of evil livelihood 五邪, 五邪命

five kinds of exertion 五種精進

five kinds of fallacious positive exemplification 同喩五過

five kinds of faults 五種失

five kinds of fears 五種怖畏

five kinds of fragrance 五分香, 五部法身香

five kinds of impotent men 五種不男

five kinds of incomplete men 五不男

five kinds of karma 五業

five kinds of meditation 五味禪, 五種禪

five kinds of natures 五種性

five kinds of nirvāṇa 五種般

five kinds of non-females 五種不女

five kinds of non-returners 五不還果, 五種不還, 五種那含

five kinds of nourishment 五食

five kinds of objectifications 五種所緣

five kinds of offerings 五供養, 五種供養

five kinds of pain 五痛

five kinds of people who expound the scriptures 五人說經

five kinds of people who testify for Buddhism 五種說人

five kinds of practices 五種雜行

five kinds of preaching 五類說法

five kinds of reality realm 五種法界

five kinds of remorse 五悔

five kinds of signs 五種印

five kinds of sounds 五類聲

five kinds of stinginess 五慳

five kinds of stores 五種藏

five kinds of suffering 五苦

five kinds of supernatural power 五種通

five kinds of supernormal cognition 五種神通

five kinds of teaching during the Buddha's career 一化五味之教

five kinds of untranslated terms 五種不翻

five kinds of wisdom 五智, 五種般若

five layers of clouds 五重雲

five levels of samādhi 五位三昧

five lions 五師子

five locks of hair 五頂

five lower-level bonds 五下分結

five magical spirits 五通神

five major Yogācāra treatises 五部大論

five marvels 五妙

five masters 五師

five meditations and four bases of mindfulness 五停四念

five mental factors that function only with specific objects 五別境

five meritorious entrances 五功德門

five messengers 五使者

five modes of the three refuges 五種三歸

five moon wheels 五月輪

five moral principles 五支戒

five mountain monasteries 五山

five natures 五姓, 五性

five natures distinction 五性各別

five natures school 五性宗

five neutered beings 五扇提羅, 五闡提羅

five night watches 五更

five normative colors 五正色

five objects 五數

five objects of meditation 五停心觀

five objects of offerings 五處供養

five obscurations 五蓋

five obstructions 五礙

five omnipresent mental factors 五遍行

five organs 五官

five organs of activity 五作根, 五作業根

five part purity (?) 五部淨

five part secret store 五部法, 五部秘藏

five parts 五分

five parts of the body 五體

five patch garment 五納衣

five patches monks robe 五帖袈裟, 五條, 五條衣, 五條袈裟

five paths 五道

five patriarchs 五祖

five peaks 五頂山

five perfections 五度, 五波羅密, 五波羅蜜

five periods and eight teachings 五時八教

five periods in womb 五位胎中

five periods of Buddha's teachings 一代五時佛法

five periods of five hundred years 五五百年

five philosophers 五家

five planets 五執, 五星

five pleasures 五樂

five pointed crown 五髻冠

five points 五事

five points of learning 五學處

five powers 五力

five practices 五行

five precepts 五戒

five prohibitions 五禁

five pronged vajra 五峯光明, 五峯金剛杵, 五峰光明, 五峰金剛杵, 五智金剛杵, 五股金剛杵, 五鈷金剛, 五鈷金剛杵

five proper foods 五正食, 半者蒲膳尼, 半者蒲闍尼

five pungent roots 五葷, 五辛

five pure foods 五淨食, 五種淨食

five pure heavenly abodes 五淨居天

five pure products 五淨

five ranks 五位

five rebirths 五生

five records of the transmission of the lamp 五燈錄

five regions of India 五天竺

five roots of goodness 五根

five rudimentary elements 五唯, 五唯量

five rules for entering the hall 入堂五法

five rules for entering the saṃgha 入衆五法

five schools 五宗

five sciences 五明

five seas 五海

five sensations 五受

five signs of decay 五衰, 五衰相

five signs of decay in celestials and humans 天人五衰

five skillful means 五方便

five sounds 五聲

five spiritual faculties 五根

five stages 五位

five stages of Dongshan 洞山五位

five stages of the Vajrasamādhi 金剛五位

five states of mind 五心

five subtle desires 五妙欲

five subtle elements 五微塵

five subtler afflictions 五利煩惱

five supernatural powers 五旬, 五神通, 五通

five suspensions 五繫

five swords 五刀

five tathāgatas 五如來

five teaching periods 五時, 五時教

five teachings 五教, 五說

five things explained fallaciously 五事妄語

five thousand (arhats) who got up and left 五千起去

five thousand most arrogant 五千上慢

five tolerances 五忍, 五忍法

five tones 五音

five topknots 五髻

five treasures 五寶

five treatises 五論

five truths 五諦

five turbidities 五濁

five unfathomables 五不可思議

five various natures 五種種性

five vases 五甁

five vases and the water of wisdom 五甁智水

five vehicles 五乘, 五衍

five vehicles equally enter 五乘齊入

five versions of the vinaya 五部律

five views 五見

five virtues 五德

five virtues of freedom from restraint 自恣五德

five viscera 五臟

five ways of chanting the Buddha's name 五會念佛

five wheeled stūpa 五輪塔婆, 五輪率塔婆, 五輪率都婆

five wheels 五輪

five wheels of liberation 五解脫輪

five wholesome roots 五根

five wisdom buddhas 五智佛

five wisdom tathāgatas 五部座

five wisdom-moon wheels 五智月輪

five, eight, ten, and complete precepts 五八十具

five, three, eight, two 五三八二

five-flavored congee 五味粥

fivefold aspects of cause and effect 五果

five-fold consciousness-only 五重唯識

fivefold consciousness-only 唯識五重

five-part dharma body 五分法身

five-part esoteric ceremonies 五部尊法, 五部悉地, 五部護摩

five-part syllogism 五分作法, 五支作法

five-pronged vajra 五古, 五股, 五股杵, 五股金剛, 五鈷

fixed 住定

flag 馱縛若, 駄縛若

flag of Buddhism 佛教旗

flag pole 幢竿

flagpole on a pagoda 表刹

flagpole supports 幢竿支柱


flaming net 焰網

flaming womb 焰胎

flash of lighting 電光

flash of lightning 電掣



flavor of the dharma 法味

flawless 無間缺

flesh-body bodhisattva 肉身菩薩

float in the water


flow upward 上行

flower 倶蘇摩, 布瑟波, 補澀波

flower adornment 花嚴, 華嚴

flower carried by people (?) 人持花

flower of the fine dharma 妙法華

flower of the well 井華

flower opens 花開

flower-eater 弗婆呵羅, 食花

flowing along with 隨順流

fluency of speech 機辯

fly and transform 飛化

flying emperor 飛帝

flying immortals 飛仙, 飛行仙

flying shard magic of the black celestial 大黑飛礫法


folding the palms of the hands together with the fingers crossed 叉手

follow , , 隨順

follow the dharma 隨法

follow the forms and discipline of the Buddha 隨相戒

follow the path 行道

follow the precepts 隨戒

follower 教徒

following completely 究竟隨轉

following delusion 隨妄

following five (hundred years) 後五

following five hundred years 後五百年, 後五百歳

following one's own mind 隨順自心

following the leader (precedent, former) 隨先

following the path of the bodhisattva 行菩薩道

follows their order 隨其次第

folly 愚癡者

folly in regard to phenomena 事愚癡

food , 飯食

food given as alms 儐荼夜

fool 愚夫, 狂愚

for an instant 一刹那頃

for but one sentence of the Truth willingly to cast oneself into the fire 一句投火

for example 喩如

for forty and more years (the Buddha) was unable to unfold the full truth 四十八餘年未顯眞實

for forty-plus years 四十餘年

for sentient beings 爲諸衆生

for the purpose (benefit) of others 他利

for the purpose of saving sentient beings 爲度衆生故

for the sake of converting people 化俗結緣

for this reason 以是義故, 由是義故

for use as food 食用

forbearance 忍辱

forbearance in speech 口忍

forbearance of gentleness 柔順忍

forbearing sage 忍仙

forbidden to women 女人禁制

force of mindfulness 念力

forest 嚩泥, , 練若, 飯那

forest of affliction 煩惱林

forest-dwelling religious mendicant 阿蘭若迦

forever, without remainder 永無餘

forge metal


forget about gain and loss 忘得失

forget thoughts 忘想

forgetfulness 忘念

forgetting 失念

form 形貌,

form and activities of from 色色業

form and mind are identical 卽相卽心

form elements 色界

form is emptiness 色卽是空

form is exactly emptiness, emptiness is exactly form 色卽是空空卽是色

form is invisible as well as insensible to other organs 無見無對色

form objects 色塵

form objects that are invisible yet materially obstructive 不可見有對色

form of perfume 香象

form of samaya 三形

form realm 色界

form realm and formless realm 色界無色界

form that is visible but materially non-obstructive 可見不對色

form, feeling, perception, impulse, and consciousness 色受想行識

form, odor, taste, and tangibility 色香味觸

formless 無色

formless liberation 無色解脫

formless realm 無色界

forms of the five buddha attendants 五佛頂法

forms that are pervasively discriminated and attached to 遍計所執相

fortuitous grass 姑尸草

fortune and misfortune 吉凶

fortune for the dead 冥資

forty 四十

forty forms of Avalokitêśvara 五八尊

forty levels of mind 四十心

forty stages 四十位

forty teeth 四十齒

forty two levels of ignorance 四十二品無明

forty-eight 四十八

forty-eight demon satellites 四十八使者

forty-eight extensive vows 六八弘誓

forty-eight minor offenses; forty-eight minor precepts 四十八輕

forty-eight minor precepts 四十八輕戒

forty-eight vows 四十八願

forty-eight world-transcending vows 六八超世本願

forty-nine days 七七, 七七日, 四十九日

forty-nine monks 四十九僧

forty-nine story jewel palace 四十九重如意殿, 四十九重摩尼殿

forty-ninth day funeral commemoration 四十九齋

forty-one stages 四十一位, 四十一地

forty-two messengers 四十二使者

forty-two siddham letters 四十二字門

forty-two stages 四十二位

foundation of mindfulness of factors of existence 法念住

foundation of mindfulness of feelings 受念住

foundation of mindfulness of thought 心念住

founder of a sect 元祖

fountainhead of mind 心源


four abilities of unhindered understanding and expression 四無礙辯

four abodes 四住

four accesses 四向

four accesses and four accomplishments 四向四果

four accomplishments 四悉檀

four afflictions 四患

four afflictions of the manas 末那四惑

four Āgamas 四含

four and eight kinds of suffering 四苦八苦

four applications of religious training 四加行

four ascetics who sought escape from death 四仙避死

four aspects 四分

four authorities 四量

four bases of mindfulness 四念住, 四念處

four bases of supernatural power 四神足

Four Brahman Heavens 四梵

four buddha lands 四佛土

four buddhas 四佛

four carts 四乘

four castes 四姓

four categories of antidotes 四對治

four causes 四緣

four celestial kings 四大天王

four characters marking the boundary 大界外相

four cognitions 四智

four cognitions of things as they are 四如實知

four cognitions of things as they really are 四如實智

four commanders 四唱

four comprehensive vinaya texts 四大廣律

four contemplations on reality 四如實觀

four continents 四大洲, 四大部洲, 四天下

four correct endeavors 四正勤

four created (established) noble truths 作四諦

four crossings 四衢

four data-fields 四塵

four desires 四欲

four dharmadhātu 四法界

four distortions 四顚倒

four divisions of the teaching according to Tiantai 天台四教

four doctrinal positions 四家

four elements 四大種

four entrenchments of affliction 四住地, 四住地煩惱, 四住煩惱

four epochs 四劫

four errors 四倒

four errors of speech 語四過

four evil destinies 四惡趣

four excellent bodies 四勝身

four excellent truths 四勝義諦

four fallacies of unproof in the reason 四不成過, 四不證過

four falls 四墮

four falls from the dharma 四墮落法

four famous mountains 四大名山

four firm beliefs 四堅信

four formless concentrations 四無色定

four forms of fearlessness 四無所畏

four fruits 四果

four good roots 四善根

four grave (crimes) 四重

four grave crimes 四重罪

four grave offenses 四根本極惡, 四波羅夷, 四波羅夷法

four grave prohibitions 四重禁

four great bodhisattvas 四大菩薩

four great continents 四州

four great elements 四大

four great guardians 四大護

four great locations of Śākyamuni's religious career 四處

four great scriptures 四大部經

four great vinayas 四大律

four great vows of bodhisattvahood 四弘誓願

four groups of Buddhist disciples 四輩

four guardian gods 四天王

four heavenly kings 四大王, 四大王衆天, 四天王

four heavens of the four kings 四天王天

four holy actions 四聖行

four hours of the night and eight hours of the day 四夜八晝

four human worldviews 四人觀世

four immeasurable minds 四無量心

four indestructible meditations 不壞四禪

four indeterminate factors 四不定

four indeterminate mental factors 四不定法

four insights into things as they are 四如實遍智

four instruments 四物

four instruments for the buddha-hall 佛殿四物

four intimate bodhisattvas 四親近菩薩

four inverted views 四顚倒

four invisibles 四不見

four kinds of afflictions related to the view of self 四種煩惱

four kinds of birth in the six destinies 六道四生

four kinds of clinging 四取

four kinds of compassion 四恩

four kinds of direct disciples 四種聲聞

four kinds of errors 四種謗, 四種顚倒

four kinds of faith 四信

four kinds of faith and five practices 四信五行

four kinds of hindrances 四種障

four kinds of indifference 四忘

four kinds of initiation in esoteric Buddhism 四度加行

four kinds of investigations 四尋思觀

four kinds of mindfulness 四念

four kinds of nirvāna 四種涅槃

four kinds of non-production 四不生

four kinds of non-retrogressoin 四不退

four kinds of outflow 四漏

four kinds of perfumation of dharmas 四種法熏習

four kinds of pervasive purity 四一切種淸淨

four kinds of prediction of Buddhahood 四種授記

four kinds of propositions in Buddhist logic 因明四宗

four kinds of sages 四聖

four kinds of self-view 四種我見

four kinds of spontaneously occurring afflictions 倶生任運四種煩惱

four kinds of thorough investigation 四尋思

four kinds of tranquilization 四種寂靜

four kinds of troops 四兵

four kinds of undefiled moral indeterminacy 四無記

four kinds of unproved statements 四不成

four lands 四土

four large circles of the thirty-seven honored ones 三十七尊四大輪

four levels of serious crimes 四偸羅遮, 四偸蘭遮

four locations in the formless realm 四空處

four lords 四主

four luminous kings 四大明王

four marks of existence 四相

four means of attaining peace 四安樂, 四安樂行

four meditation heavens 四定, 四禪天

four meditations 四禪

four metaphors 四喩

four methods of preparation 四事法門

four methods of teaching 四化法

four methods of winning (people) over 四攝法

four minutest forms 四微

four mistaken attachments 四執

four monastic heads 四大師

four mountains 四山

four necessities 先陀婆, 四事

four noble truths 四諦

four ones 四一

four ounces 四兩分

four pārājikas 四夷, 四夷戒

four parks 四園

four parts of a renunciant's dole 乞食四分

four periods 四世

four phrases 四句

four phrases on the attainment of enlightenment 四句成道

four postures 四儀, 四威儀

four powers 四力

four pratideśanīya 四提舍尼

four prime months 四孟月

four principal disciples 四大弟子, 四大聲聞

four principles 四優檀那

four provisions 四事供養

four purposes of the Buddha's appearing 四佛知見

four raging currents 四慕流, 四暴流

four realizations of the great vehicle 大乘四果

four realms of reality 四法界

four reasons 四因緣

four rebirths 四趣

four reliances 四依

four responses 四定記

four sages 四仙

four schools of Mahāyāna 四家大乘

four schools of thought 四宗

four siddhāntas 四悉檀

four sins of speech 口四

four skandhas outside of form 四無色蘊

four snakes in one basket 一篋四蛇

four stages 四位

four stages in reversal of the saṃsāric flow 反流四位

four stages in the activation of enlightenment 始覺四位

four stages in the attainment of buddhahood 四階成佛

four statements of attachment 四句執

four stūpas 四塔

four supports and eightfold path 四依八正

four tastes 四味

four things not to be taken lightly 四不可輕

four thoughts 四心

four times eight marks 四八相

four times eight responses of great compassion 大悲四八之應

four times of worship 四上

four times seven chapters 四七品

four to whom one does not entrust valuables 四不寄附

four treatise school 四論宗

four unattainables 四不可得

four unconstructed noble truths 無作四諦

four unfathomables 四不可思議, 四事不可思議

four unobstructed knowledges 四辨

four vajra-rulers 四執金剛

four views 四見

four vinaya and five treatises 四律五論

four virtues 四德

four ways of discerning the same object 一境四心

four world-protecting celestial kings 護世四天王

fourfold collection course 四集科

fourfold community 四部大衆

Fourfold Doctrinal Course 四教科

fourfold negation 四句分別

four-line (Chinese) verse 四句偈

four-phrase classification 四句推撿

fourteen 十四

fourteen deities and nine kings 十四神九王

fourteen difficult questions 十四難

fourteen fallacies possible in the reason 十四過

fourteen other-world realms of fourteen Buddhas 十四佛國往生

fourteen possible errors in the reason 似因十四過

fourteen transformations 十四變化

fourth ground (bhūmi) 四地

fourth item 第四句



fragment 一片

fragment aloe-wood 沉香, 阿伽嚧, 阿伽樓

fragmentary samsāra 分段生死

fragrance 香氣

fragrance of the mind 心香

fragrance of virtue 德香

fragrant adornment 香光莊嚴, 香嚴

fragrant bath 香湯

fragrant food 香食

fragrant ocean 香水海, 香海

fragrant odor 好香

fragrant oleander 羊躑躅

fragrant pyre 香樓

fragrant water 香水

fraudulent 奸詐

free from activity 無作用

free from afflictions 離煩惱

free from all darkness 離一切闇

free from all distinctive characteristics 離一切相

free from all pollution 離諸垢

free from attached love 無愛

free from conceptual proliferations 離諸戲論

free from consciousness 離識

free from craving 離欲貪

free from defiled phenomena 離染法

free from desire 離欲者

free from disease 無病, 阿伽陀, 阿揭陀, 阿竭陀

free from doubt 無疑

free from errors 離諸過失

free from extremes 離邊

free from form 離色

free from language 離言

free from nature 離性

free from obscuration 離蓋

free from perception 離想

free from pride 離於我慢

free from regret 無有悔

free from secondary afflictions 離隨煩惱

free from the desire of the desire realm 離欲界欲

free from the desire realm 離欲界

free from the marks of thought 離念相

free from the ocean of cyclic existence 離生死海

free from the six sense bases 離六處

free from thought 無念

free from trouble 無煩

free from two extreme views 離二邊

free from various kinds of laziness 離諸懈怠

free of savored tastes 離諸愛味

freed from desire 已離欲

freedom from bondage 離縛

freedom from causality or subjection to causality 不落不昧

freedom from defilement 離染

freedom from desire 離貪, 離貪性

freeing sentient beings from desire 令離欲

freely 隨心

freely wander 遊步

fresh ginger 阿儞囉迦


frivolity 掉擧

from abode this 從此已上

from above 上來

from another 從他

from beginningless time 從無始, 無始世來, 無始時來

from its own nature 由自相

from others 由他

from that 從彼

from the beginning 從本, 從本來

from the beginningless past 無始世

from the past time 世來

from the perspective of 且約

from the perspective of sameness 通相

from this 從此 before 以前

front parlor 寢堂

frost 兜沙

frugality 儉約

fruit 果體,

fruit of the sandalwood tree 檀樹耳, 檀耳, 檀茸

fruits and sweetmeats

fruits, or realizations that are not shared 不共果

frustrations of the afflictions 煩惱變異事

fulfilled 已滿, 已滿足

fulfillment of conditions 具緣

fulfillment of the conditions for the completion of an action 具緣成業

full accomplishment of applied practices 有加行行圓滿

full accumulation 集成

full awakening 了悟

full comprehension of things as they are 如實遍知

full edition scripture 大品經

full explanation 普說

full lotus position 全跏趺坐

full mastery 一向自在

full meditative concentration 得定

full monk's robe 大袈裟

full ordainment 全分受, 全分戒

full ordainment upon coming of age 年滿受具

full precepts expediently 具戒方便

full prediction 無餘記

full set of bodhisattva precepts 一切菩薩戒

full set of five implements 五具足

full set of precepts 具戒

full understanding 全知

full word 滿字

fully abiding 具足住

fully achieved 具足成就

fully acquired 具證

fully actualized view of reality 證見

fully arisen from the beginning 從初生已

fully attains the status of non-returner 證不還果

fully attains the status of once-returner 證一來果

fully attains the status of stream-winner 證預流果

fully compassionate 具足悲愍

fully corresponding 具相應

fully explained teaching 了義教

fully express 具顯

fully nourishes 遂養

fully ordained monk 大僧

fully realize 了達

fully realized 具證得

fully replete 一切具足

fully revealed teaching 了義之教

fully understand reality 了知眞實

function 作用, 德用, 運用

function concurrently 一時倶轉

function of the mind to be in accord with goodness 機誼

function pervasively

functioning independently 獨行

functions free from marks 離相而轉

fundamental afflictions 本煩惱

fundamental matter 一段事

fundamental nature is originally pure 自性本來淸淨

fundamental nature is pure 自性淨

funeral 葬法

funeral rites

funerary text 齋文

further necessary 復須

further retrogression 復退轉

furthermore 又復

furthermore, a sentence below says... 又下文言


future 當來

future Buddha 當來佛

future causes 未來因

future mind is unobtainable 未來心不可得

gained from listening 聞所成

gaining access to a reliable teacher 得善知識

gambling 博戲

gardens 阿羅彌, 阿羅磨, 阿藍麼

garland made of beads and flowers 珠花鬘

garland of teeth 齒鬘

garment of merits 羯絺那

gate of devils 鬼門

gate of entry 入門

gate of immortality 不死門

gate of liberation 解脫門

gate of no-conceptualization 無想門

gate of non-duality 不二門

gate of one-pointedness 一向門

gate of the four heavenly kings 四天王門

gate of understanding of all teachings 千法明門

gate to full accomplishment 引發門

gateless school 無門宗


gathering causes 攝受因

gathering like clouds 雲集

gathering of clouds 雲凝

gathering of monks 和合僧

gathers wholesome roots 集善根

geese flying 雁行


general among particulars 不共中共

general and specific introductions 通別二序

general attribute 共相

general name for a Buddhist priest 衆徒

general of the five destinies 五道將軍

general sense of the term 通義

generally explained 通說

generally has 凡有

generated based on causes and conditions 依因緣生

generates 變生

generation 世代

gentle 柔和

gentle words 柔輭語

get rid of 除滅

ghosts seeking offerings 希祀鬼

give rise to discriminations 生分別

given rise to by attention 作意而生

gives 賜與

gives rise to bases 生所依

gives rise to ignorance 能起無明

gives rise to the three realms 生三界

gives rise to thought 生意, 起心


giving for heavenly rewards 希求施

giving in hope of heaven 希天施

giving sand as alms to the Buddha 以砂施佛

giving things 物施

giving without reliance 無依惠施

glorious and pure 嚴淨

gloriously adorned 嚴飾

glowing 入嚩羅

go 伽車提

go along with and use 隨用

go and teach 行化

go around 周旋

go to evil rebirths 往惡趣

go to the altar 入壇

go to the toiler 行厠

goat cart 羊乘, 羊車


god of the oceans and rivers 水天

god of the wind 三暮多

god of writing 造書天

goddess 天女

goddess of the Buddha's eye 佛眼尊

goddess of the three poisons 三毒尸利

gods and men scatter flowers on a body 天人散花身上

gods of the sky 空居天

gods of the world 世間天

gods that are a joy to see 喜見天

going 哦哆也

going along with cyclic existence 隨順流轉

going along with other conditions 隨順他緣

going along with the mundane 隨順世間

going and coming 往來, 徃來

going and returning 往復

going out of the gate 出門

going to the darkness 冥往

golden 建折那

golden mouth 金口


gong for the deceased 無常磬, 無常鐘

good actions 善業

good and (or) defiled 善染

good and evil karma 善惡之業

good and virtuous friend 善知識

good bodhisattva 善薩

good cause 善因

good causes, good results 善因善果

good character already evolved 已生善

good deed 善事

good deed(s) 善之行

good deities 善神

good doctor 良醫

good eon 善劫

good explanations of the dharma 善說法

good fortune celestials 大吉祥天

good in the end 後善

good intentions 善意, 善意樂

good men and believing women 善男信女

good mind 善心

good month 善月

good omens

good results 善果

good root of absence of craving 無貪善根

good roots 善本, 善根

good sons 善男子

good sons, good women 善男子善女人

good things and bad things 好惡

good women 善女人

good-looking 樂見

goose king 雁王, 鵞王

gourmet food 美食

govern 化御

government license allowing one to become a Buddhist monk or nun 度牒

gradual advancement 漸次

gradual cultivation 漸修

gradual decrease 漸損

gradual teaching 漸教

gradually escapes 漸出


Grand Tripiṭaka of the Goryeo 八萬大藏經, 高麗大藏經

grasp the meaning 得意

grasping at imputed phenomena 假有能取分別

grasping to affairs 事能取

grasping to emptiness 取空

grasps names 取名

grasps the meaning according to language 如言取義


grass finger-ring 草環, 草茅環

gratitude 阿奴謨柁

gratitude to the Buddha 念報佛恩心

grave danger 危逼

grave error 大邪

grave offenses 他勝, 斷頭, 波羅夷, 波羅市迦, 波羅闍已迦

gravestone 墓石

great , , 麼賀

great activity 大勢

great adamantine wisdom of the truth of cessation 大滅諦金剛智

great adornment 大莊嚴

great afflictions 大惑

great altar 大壇

great arhat 大阿羅漢

great assembly 大會, 大會衆

great august monarch 大高王

great auspicious anniversary 大祥忌

great auspicious bright bodhisattva 大吉祥明菩薩

great auspicious great bright bodhisattva 大吉大明菩薩

great auspicious indestructibility 大吉祥金剛

great auspicious transformation bodhisattva 大吉變菩薩

great authority 大威力, 大威德

great authority of the benefits of practice bodhisattva 大權修利菩薩

great bell 大鐘

great benefit 巨益

Great bhūmi 大地

great birth 大生

great bitter sea 大苦海

great blazing perfect light 大熾盛光

great bliss 大樂

great bodhisattva 大菩薩

great brahman heaven 大梵天

great bright universal illumination 大光普照

great buddha-peak 大佛頂

great Buddhist friend 大善知識

great burning hell 大燒炙獄

great capacity 大機

great cart 大車

great city of meanings 大義城

great clarity 大淸

great cold forest 大寒林

great collection 大集

great commander 大元帥明王

great compassion 大慈悲

great compassion based on sameness in essence 同體大悲, 同體慈悲

great compassionate one 大悲者

great compassionate universal manifestation 大悲普現

great compassionate womb-store 大悲胎藏

great completion of wish-meaning 大滿願義

great comprehensive dharma-gate 大總法門

great concentration 三昧正取

great conflagration 大水火, 大水災

great continent 大洲

great deal of anxiety 多慮

great deception 大術

great destiny 大命

great destructive wind 大災風

great deva king 大神王

great dharma assembly 大法會

great dharma-rain 大法雨

great doctrine 大綱

great donation 大施

great dream 大夢

great elements 大種

great elephant treasure 大象藏

great emptiness 大空

great enlightenment 大悟, 大般若, 大覺

great eon 大刧

great error 大過, 大過失

great expedient means 大方便

great extinction 大寂滅, 大般涅槃

great extinction without remainder 無餘依般涅槃

great falsehood 大亡語

great fiery pit 大火坑

great flowered jasmine 修摩那

great fruit 大果

great gathering for almsgiving 大施會

great good improvement 大善利

great grave precepts 大重戒

great guide 大導師

great heap of rare jewels 大珍寶聚

great hell 大那落迦

great hell of a forest with iron sword leaves 鐵劍樹林大地獄

great house 一大宅

great illusion 大幻

great impediment to the virtuous way 大障善道

great import 大義

great inclusion 大攝受

great intention to burn the body 大志焚身

great inviter 大召

great is the robe of liberation 大哉解脫服

great jewel 大寶

great jewel lotus king 大寶華王

great jewel lotus king throne 大寶華王座

great joy (delight, rapture) 大歡喜

great king 大王

great king of doctors 大醫王

great king of meanings 大義王

great laughing radiant king 大笑明王

great lie 大妄語

great luminous sound heaven 大光音天

great magician 大幻師

great man of the Himalayas 雪山大士, 雪山童子

great maṇḍala 大曼, 大曼荼羅

great marks 大相

great mass of suffering 大苦蘊

great matter 大事

great meditation teacher 大禪師

great mental power 大心力

great mercy and great pity 大慈大悲

great mind ocean 大心海

great mind of enlightenment 大菩提心

great mindfulness 大念

great mindfulness and cognition 大念大智

great mindfulness of the Buddha 大念佛

great mirror 大鑑

great monastery 大寺

great monk 大沙門

great naked bodies 大露身

great night 大夜

great nirvāna 大般涅槃

great ocean congregation 大海衆

great ocean seal 大海印

great offerings 大嚫

great ox cart 大牛車

great oxhead king 牛頭大王

great pacifier 大安慰

great peace 大安

great peacock king 大孔雀王

great penetration 大通

great perfect enlightenment 大圓覺

great perfect mirror 大圓鏡

great perfect mirror cognition 大圓鏡智

great perfections 大波羅密

great pity 大哀愍

great polluted dharma 大染法

great potentiality 大權

great power of all the armies of Māra 一切魔怨大威力

great power or energy 大力

great precepts of the thousand buddhas 千佛大戒

great precious dharma king 大寶法王

great precious flower 大寶華

great precious ocean 大寶海

great precious region 大寶坊

great precious treasury 大寶藏

great pride in the dharma 大法慢

great protective sign 大護印

great quiescence 大寂靜

great radiance 大光

great realm 大界

great reception 大相看

great red lotus 大紅蓮華

great red lotuses 大紅蓮

great reward 大勝利

great ring of iron 大鐵圍

great ring of iron mountains 大鐵圍山

great robe 大衣

great sage 大仙

great salvation 大度

great savior 大度師

great scriptural store 大藏

great scripture fascicle 大經卷

great sea 巨海

great self 大我

great shining kings 大明王

great shrine hall 大雄殿

great subordinate officials 大僚屬

great suffering 大苦

great teacher 大師

great teaching 大教

great thief without a sword 無刀大賊

great thorough formation of connections 大通結緣

great transformation 大化

great treatise master 大論師

great universally shining Avalokiteśvara 大光普照觀音

great vast buddha 大方廣佛

great vehicle 勝乘, 大乘

great vehicle abhidharma 大乘論, 大乘阿毘達磨

great vehicle aspiration 大乘心

great vehicle precepts 大乘戒

great vehicle scriptures 大乘經

great vehicle's doctrine of equality 大乘平等法

great venerable 大和尚

great vessel 大船

great victorious vajra 大勝金剛

great virtue 大德

great voice 大音聲

great vow 僧那, 僧那僧涅, 大誓, 大誓願, 大願, 弘誓願, 弘願

great wealth 大財

great wealth and possessions 大財富

great wealth and rank 大財位

great wheel-turning king 大轉輪王

great white flower 大白團華, 大白華

great white lotus 大蓮華, 奔茶

great white ox cart 大白牛車

great white-bodied bodhisattva 大明白身菩薩

great white-robed one 大白衣

great wind 吠藍婆

great wisdom 大智慧, 摩訶般若

great worshipful 大應供

great zeal 大精進

greater baptism 大灌頂

greater than the greatest 無上上

greatest 最上, 鬱多摩

greatest aspiration 最上意

greatest freedom 最自在

greatest path 上品道

greatly adorned realm 大莊嚴世界

greatly compassionate 具大悲

greatly compassionate armor 大悲鎧冑門

greatly compassionate Avalokiteśvara 大悲觀世

greatly compassionate bodhisattva 大悲菩薩

greatly enlightened golden sage 大覺金仙

greatly enlightened world-honored one 大覺世尊

greatly extended 大方等

greatly zealous and brave 大勤勇

greatness of essence 體大

greatness of the attributes 相大


groaning hell 阿呼地獄, 阿浮地獄

gross 麤品

gross filth 麤垢

gross form 麤色

ground (or stage) of burning wisdom 焰慧地

ground of excellent wisdom 善慧地

ground of immovability 不動地

ground of non-retrogression 不退地

ground/stage of the solitary realizer 獨覺地

grounds (stages) with residue 有餘依地

group 有衆

group of disciples 弟子衆

group of disciples of the sage 聖弟子衆

group of monks 衆僧

group of six 六衆

group of six bhikṣus 六群比丘


grove of the seven jewels 七寶樹林

growing 漸增盛

Guang and Bao 光寳

guard 守護,

guarding 爲護

guarding the sense-gates 護根門

guarding thought 防慮

guides the followers 御衆



habit cause 習因

habit energies 習氣

habituate 串習

habituated over a long period of time 長時數習

habituated seeds 習種子

habituation 行蘊

hail! 沙波訶

hairs of tortoises and horns of rabbits 龜毛兔角


half a day's fast 半齋

half a month 半月, 博吃蒭

half deva brahmans 半天婆羅門

half-leaps 半超

half-lotus posture 半跏趺坐

half-monk 伴僧, 從僧

half-word 半字

hall of images 影堂

hall of immeasurable life 無量壽殿

hall of impermanence 無常堂, 無常院

hall of incense 健陀倶知, 香室堂

hall of judgment 冥府殿

hall of silent illumination 大寂光殿

hall of the fine dharma 善法堂, 妙法堂

hall of the hermit sage 獨聖閣

hall of the sixteen arhats 羅漢殿

hall of the ten kings 十王殿

hall of the three sages 三聖閣

hall of universal light 普光明殿

hall-entering ceremony 庭儀

halo 印光, 背光

halo and throne (of a Buddha) 光座

halo behind the throne 座光

hand 訶悉多

hand of faith 信手

hand over and check 交點

hand over the hall 交堂

hand-bell 引磬

handler of guests 典客

hands folded with interlocking fingers 反叉合掌

hanging banner 幢幡

happiness of the dead 冥福

happy in spirit 心歡喜

hard rocks break rocks 難石石裂

hard to cross over 難度

hard to overcome 難勝

hardship 厄難


haritaki 一訶子

harmful 可害

harmful activity and beneficial activity have no separate director 罪福無主

harmful attachments 魔縛

harmful circumstances 魔緣

harmful meditation 魔禪

harmful obstructions 魔障

harmful offerings 魔檀

harmless 非可害

harmonious sounds 和雅音

harmoniously unified so as to be indistinguishable 冥一

harmonization 和合性

harmonize differences in teaching 通會

harsh speech 語麤惡, 麤惡語

has an ending 有終

has arrived to 已到

has attained 已證得

has attained freedom from attachment/desire 已得離欲

has attained the noble path 已得聖道

has cultivated 修習已

has entered 已入

has established 已立

has greater and lesser 有高有下

has no obstruction 無有礙

has reached the terminus 已到究竟

has understood 已知



have (already) explained 已說

have a cup of tea 喫茶去

have confidence 信受

have faith in 信受

have permanently eliminated 已永斷

have two kinds of distinctions 有二種殊

having already happened 先已生

having beautiful flowers 華開敷

having been attained 得已

having been reborn 受生已

having caused to enter... 令趣入已

having completed this observation... 如是觀已

having faith in other 他信

having form 并相, 幷相

having long life 具壽

having natural control of 隨自在轉

having neither strength nor ability 無力無能

having no discrimination 無想所有

having reached the goal 已得究竟

having received... 受已

having residue 有餘依

having the nature of appropriation 有取受性



he has a total of forty teeth 具四十齒相

he on whom the world relies 世依

head lecturer 講主, 講伯

head monk 堂上

head of the household 倶攞鉢底

head of the order 大統

head of white hair 白首

head phrase 話頭

head temple 本寺

headdress 麼攞, 麼羅

healthy 建康

hear the same thing and understand it differently 同聽異聞

heart 乾栗馱, 于栗駄, , 汗栗馱, 汙栗馱, 汚栗馱

heart of a mantra 咒心

heart of all true words 一切眞言心

heat ,


heaven of extensive rewards 廣果天

heaven of good appearance 善見天

heaven of great brahma according to intention 大梵如意天

heaven of infinite consciousness 無邊識處天

heaven of infinite purity 無量淨天

heaven of infinite space 無邊空處天

heaven of lesser purity 少淨天, 波栗多首婆, 約淨天

heaven of little light 廅天

heaven of merit production 福生天

heaven of no anxiety 無煩天

heaven of no heat 無熱天

heaven of radiant sound 光音天

heaven of skillful manifestation 善現天

heaven of the automatic reception of one's sensual desires 樂變化天

heaven of the most rarefied form 色究竟天, 色頂

Heaven of the Thirty-three (gods) 忉利天

heaven of the thirty-three celestials 三十三天

heaven of universal purity 遍淨天

heaven of unlimited light 無量光天

heaven of unlimited space 空無邊處天

heaven where one can partake of the pleasures created in other heavens 他化自在天

heavenly existence 天有

heavenly illumination—the sun 天光

heavenly messengers 天使

heavenly musicians 樂天

heavenly organ 天根

heavenly paradise 天上樂世界

heavenly realm 天上, 天上界, 天界

heavenly sages 天仙

heavenly warrior 天力士

heavens and hells 天堂地獄, 天獄

heavens in the eight directions 八方天

hedonism 快樂主義

heedlessness 放恣

heinous crime 逆罪

hell 奈落, 那落

hell of great heat 大炎熱

hell of great screaming 大叫地獄

hell of great wailing 大叫喚地獄, 大呌, 大呼, 大號呌

hell of hot iron 熱鐡地獄

hell of the five-pronged forks 五叉地獄

hell of wailing 叫喚地獄

hell where they have to drink blood 飮血地獄

hell-river 奈河



hence we know... 故知

henceforth 從此已後

here 於是

here and there 彼彼處

heretic 外道

heretical sect which believed in the reality of past and future as well as the present 去來實有宗

heretics who believe in a single consciousness 一識外道

hermit sage 獨修聖, 獨聖

hero among the two-legged beings 世雄兩足尊

hero of the triple world 三界雄

heroic bestower 無畏授

heroic sitting posture 健勇坐

heroic valor 首楞嚴

heterodox (non-Buddhist) practices 外道行

heuristic designation 建立

hidden , 祕密

higher and lower eight truths 上下八諦

higher destinies 上趣

higher level 上品, 上輩

higher stages of practice 上地

higher vehicle esoteric school 上乘密宗

highest cord 上綱

highest level of material existence 有頂

highest of the highest stage 上品上生

highest of the nine classes 九品上

highest of the three lowest classes 下品上生

highest worldly meditative state 世第一法

high-level spiritual maturation 上品成熟

hill 一山

hinder 留礙

hindered by karmic impressions 習氣障


hindrance of formless preparatory practices 無相加行障

hindrance of harmful behavior 罪障

hindrance of karma 業障

hindrance of no desire to act 不欲行障

hindrance of non-attainment of sovereignty in regard to phenomena 法未自在障

hindrance of the lesser vehicle notion of nirvāṇa 下乘涅槃障

hindrances due to discrimination 分別障

hindrances of dullness 暗鈍障

hindrances of errant behavior 邪行障

hindrances to liberation 解脫障

his aura illuminating everywhere 光明普照

his eyelashes are like those of a magnificent heifer 牛王睫相

his eyes are deep blue 其目紺青

his male organ is withdrawn 陰藏相

his shoulders are broad 兩腋圓滿相

his teeth are pure white 其齒鮮白

his tongue is broad and flat 其舌廣薄

his tongue is broad and flat, such that when it is extended, it covers his entire face 其舌廣薄普覆面輪

his words are taken seriously 其言敦肅

historical narratives 尼陀那


hitting novices with a stick 下棒

hoists the dharma-banner 建法幢

holding several confession ceremonies within the same monastic boundary 住處淨

holding the torch 秉炬


hole for the fire altar 君荼

holy (noble) truth of the path to the extinction of suffering 苦滅道聖諦

holy man 聖人

holy one 薄伽梵

holy path 聖道

holy superknowledges 聖神通

holy truth(s) 聖諦

holy truth; ultimate referent; beyond referentiality 眞諦

homage to Amitābha Buddha 南無阿彌陀佛

homage to the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara 南無觀世音菩薩

homage to the great master universally illuminating and adamantine one 南無大師遍照金剛

homage to the Lotus Sūtra

homage to the six directions 六方禮

homogenous production 等流果

honorable 尊貴

honored among men 人尊

honored one 仁尊

honored one of great kindness 大慈尊

honored one of the three worlds 三界尊

honored possessor of the ten powers 十力尊

hook a nose 巴鼻

hook an arm 巴臂

hope 意樂

horns of a rabbit 兎角

horns on a rabbit 兔角


horse feed 馬麥

horse park 馬苑

horse sacrifice 馬祀

horse-like mind 心馬

house of incense 香室

house of the five aggregates 五蘊宅

house-deity belief 家神信仰

how can it be interpreted? 云何通

how many kinds? 幾種

how much more so in the case of external things? 何況外物

how much more so with other cases... 況餘

how much more so? 況乎

how much more.. 何況

how much? 幾多

how should one subdue one's thoughts? 云何降伏其心

how should we understand... 云何應知

how? why? where?

however immeasurable the teachings may be, I vow to study them 法門無量誓願學

however inexhaustible afflictions may be, I vow to extinguish them 煩惱無盡誓願斷

however inexhaustible the teachings may be, I vow to study them 法門無盡誓願學

human being , 人間

human birth 人生

human cattle 人身牛

human existence 人有

human flesh 人摩娑, 人莽娑

human healing king 人藥王

human possessions 人物

human realm 人世間

human vehicle 人乘

humane activities 仁行

humane kings 仁王

human-yet-not-human 人非人

hundred seats council 百高座道場

hundred sites lecture 百座講會

hundred-seat dharma assembly 百高座會



hungry and cold 飢寒

hungry ghost 俾禮多, 卑帝利, 阿毘遮羅, 餓鬼

hungry ghosts and animals 鬼傍生


hurrying demons 速疾鬼

hymns and chants 調頌


hyssop 牛膝草

I (the writer)

I originally practiced the bodhisattva path 我本行菩薩道

I originally practiced... 我本行

i sound 伊字


ice of affliction 煩惱冰

idealism 唯心論, 觀念論

ideational proliferation in its subtle aspects 細相戲論

identical 全同

identity 同相

identity and difference 卽離, 卽非

identity of phenomena with their underlying principle 卽事卽理

if I am forced to translate it... 強翻之

if I were to become a buddha 設我得佛

if this is the case, then how...? 若爾何故

if you propose that... 若立

if you say... 若說

ignorance 無明, 無知,

ignorance and dharma nature are one in essence 無明法性一體

ignorance and so forth 無明等

ignorance as a flowing current 無明流

ignorance as father 無明父

ignorance in regard to properly distinguishing various phenomena 事中無知

ignorance of attachment to phenomena 法執無明

ignorance of the view of self 我見無明

ignorant 幼稚, 愚夫, 無明者

ignorant views 無明見

illuminate the surrounding area from a high place 照臨

illuminating function 照用

illumination of the teaching 法光明

illusion 麼也

illusion of the aggregates 陰妄, 陰幻

illusory 如幻化

illusory afflictions 幻惑

illusory and defiled 幻垢

illusory body 幻身

illusory discrimination 幻差別

illusory existence 幻有

illusory marks 幻相

illusory mind 幻心

illusory transformation 幻化

illusory views 沒曳達利瑟致

illustrated sūtra paintings 變相圖

illustration of the twelve limbs of dependent origination 十二緣起圖

ill-will 忿恚

ill-will and wrangling 忿害鬥諍


image of heavenly being 天像

image of the bodhisattva who will help 一生補處菩薩像

images and sūtras 像經

images of the fifty-two attendants 五十二身像

images of the fifty-two bodhisattva attendants of Amitābha 阿彌陀佛五十菩薩像

images of the fifty-two honored ones 五十二尊

imagined characteristic 分別相

imagining 起諸分別

imagining everything 徧計

imagining himself having form, he sees large external forms, and overcomes them 內有色想觀外色多

imagining himself lacking form, he sees large external forms, and overcome them 內無色想觀外色多

imagining himself lacking form, he sees small external forms, and overcome them 內無色想觀外色少

imbalanced emptiness 偏空

immaculate 阿摩勒

immaterial 無形, 無有事

immaterial constituents 無色法

immaterial realm of reality 無塵法界

immeasurable absorption 無量三摩地

immeasurable and countless 無量無數

immeasurable buddhas 無量佛

immeasurable concentration 無量三昧

immeasurable enlightenment 無量覺

immeasurable intention 無量意

immeasurable merit 無量功德, 無量福

immeasurable merit(s) 無量福德

immeasurable mind 無量心

immeasurable purity 無量淨

immeasurable wisdom 無量慧

immediate or instantaneous, the first impression 卒爾心

immediately 卽時, 已卽

immediately after this 從此無間

immediately attain 便頓得

immediately following 三摩難呾囉

immense suffering 大苦惱

immortal 不死, , 哩始

immortal among men 人仙

immovable 不動, 不可動

immovable arhat 不動阿羅漢

immovable liberation 不動解脫

immutability (of thusness) 不變異性

immutable 無變異

impair 覆弊

impaired 不具

impartiality 平等心

impartiality in love to all 冤親平等心

impeded 所障隔

impedimentary constituents 障礙依

impedimentary moral indeterminacy 有覆無記

imperfect 不圓

imperishable 無有滅

impermanence 無常, 無常性

implements used for everyday living 樂具

important or pivotal point 機要

impossible 不得, 無是處


imprecision 不正確


impulse is the condition for consciousness 行緣識

impure 不淨

impure and pure 不淨淨

impure behavior 不淨行

impure donation 不淨施

impure intentiony 不淸淨意樂

impure meat 不淨肉

impure stage(s) 不淨位

impure teaching 不淨說法

impure wheel 不淨輪

impurity ,

impurity of afflictions 煩惱濁

impurity of human life 命濁

impurity of sentient beinghood 衆生濁

imputes a self 計我

imputing 起諸分別

in accordance with

in accordance with fact 如有

in another life 於餘生

in between 卽中

in common 三摩若

in common with

in common with the direct disciples 共諸聲聞

in conflict with each other 互相違背

in front of one's listed name 單前

in great detail 委悉

in my own limited view... 余以管見

in order 如次, 如次第

in order of monastic age 僧次

in order to accomplish 爲成

in place of

in regard to perceptual referents 於所緣境

in that case, then this is... 則爲

in that way... 伊麼

in the crowd 衆中

in the forest 林間

in the four directions 於四方

in the midst of the flow 中流

in the sūtra(s) 經中

in this 於是

in this moment, empty, provisional, and in between 卽空卽假卽中

in this sequence 如其次第

inability 無堪任性

inability to make a living 不活

inactive 不轉, 無所作

inborn afflictions 任運煩惱

incalculability of sublime aspirations 妙善意樂無量

incalculable 僧祇, 阿僧祇

incalculable in terms of the number of expedient means of submission 調伏方便界無量

incalculable wisdom 無量智

incalculably long eon 僧祇劫, 阿僧祇劫

incalculably long eon(s) 無數劫

incantation 呪術

incantation for raising the dead 咒殺

incantation for raising the spirits of the dead 咒起死鬼

incantation-vow 咒願

incapability 無堪能性

incense 突婆,

incense and flowers 香華

incense balls 丸香, 香丸

incense board 香板

incense hall 香殿

incense mountain 香山

incense talk 香語

incense-colored 香染, 香色

incense-colored robes 香複衣, 香服, 香衣

incipiency 機先

inclination 隨眠

inclination for wrongdoing 有過

inclinations of the mind 心趣

included in the field of conceptualization 法處所攝

included in the three realms 三界所攝

including both with harmful error 二人倶犯, 二倶犯過

including those in the advantageous rebirths 善趣攝

incoherent talk

incomparable 無比

incomparable body 無比身

incomparable dharma 無比法

incompatible 不共

incomplete 不具足, 不圓滿, 不成, 不滿, 不滿足, 未滿

incomprehensible wisdom of the Buddha 不了佛智

inconceivable 不可思議, 不可思量, 不思議, 阿軫帝也

inconceivable activity 不思議業

inconceivable emptiness 不思議空

inconceivable liberation 不思議解脫

inconceivable mark of activity 不思議業相

inconceivable mind 不思議心

inconceivable perfuming 不思議熏

inconceivable qualities of the buddhas 佛不思議法

inconceivable realm 不思議界

inconceivable superknowledge(s) 不可思議神通

inconceivable transformations 不思議變

inconceivable vehicle 不思議乘

inconceivable wisdom 不思議智

inconclusive reason 不定因

inconclusiveness 不定性

inconsistent (irregular, uneven, unequal) causation 不平等因

inconstant 無恒

incorrect 不如實, 不如眞

incorrect cognition 不正知

incorrect meditation 邪觀

incorrect thought 不正思惟

incorrigible 一闡提迦, 一顚迦, 阿闡底迦

incorruptible adamantine body 金剛不壞身

increase , 增長

increase of the dharma 法增上

increased 已增

increasing 漸增盛

increasing of pure phenomena already generated 已生善令增長

incur damage 被損害

indefinite karma 不定受業

independent 獨自, 獨頭

independently arising thinking consciousness 獨頭意識

independently functioning ignorance 不共無明, 獨行無明

independently-functioning ignorance 獨頭無明

indescribable 不可定說

indescribable objects 不可稱境

indestructibility of the Way 不壞道性

indestructible 不壞

indestructible aspiration 不壞意樂

indestructible dharma 不壞法

indestructible in one's character 不壞相

indestructible meditations 不壞法

indestructible syllable 不壞句

indestructible Way 不壞道

indestructible-adamantine 不壞金剛

indeterminate 不定

indeterminate activity 無記業

indeterminate class 不定聚

indeterminate karma 不定業

indeterminate meditation 不定止觀, 不定觀

indeterminate mental factors 不定法

indeterminate mental functions 不定地法

indeterminate nature 不定性, 不定種姓, 不定種性

indeterminate teaching 不定教

indeterminate type 不定種

India 信度國, 天竺

Indian studies 印度學

indifference 優畢捨

indifferent regarding one's life 不惜身命

indirect cause 遠因

individual karma 不共業

individual phenomena 事法

individual self 個我

indolence 懈怠

Indra's altar 大因陀羅壇

Indra's Net 因陀羅網, 帝釋網

Indra's throne 大因陀羅座

induce realization 引證

inductive causes 牽引因

ineffable 不可說

inexhaustible 無窮

inexhaustible as the ocean 無盡海

inexhaustible conditioned arising 無盡緣起

inexhaustible lamp 無盡燈

inexhaustible nature of reality 無盡法性

inexhaustible storehouse 無盡藏

inexhaustible teaching 無盡法

inexhaustible treasury of merit 無盡功德藏

inexplicable 不可說, 不可說相

inexpressible 不可說, 離言

infant 赤子

inference 比量, 隨量

inference from recognized law 法比量

inferential proof 能立

inferior 下劣,

inferior and shallow 下劣薄弱

inferior candles 下蠟

inferior disciple 下士

inferior goodness 下劣善

inferior group 下輩

inferior maturation 下品成熟

inferior mind 下劣心

inferior of the inferior 下下品

inferior patience 下忍

inferior rooms 下間

inferior type 下劣種

inferior vehicle 下劣乘

infinitesimal 阿拏, 阿耨, 阿菟

influence of incorrect contemplation 不如理作意力

inform by offering incense 吿香

informing 能開

inhalation 阿那

inhale 入息,

inherent 倶有, 倶生, 本來有

inherent existence 自性有

inherently existent self 人我執

inherently produced view of the reality of the self 倶生薩迦耶見

inherit the dharma from one's teacher 嗣法

initial enlightenment 始覺

initial production 始生

initial stages of spiritual practice 始業初業

initiate 引化

initiated by undistorted cognition 無顚倒智發起

initiator 始士

injunctions against stealing 不偸盜, 不偸盜戒, 不盜戒


inlaid gold or silver ornamentation 廁鈿

innate 任運起

innate aspiration 倶生意樂

innate attachment to phenomena 倶生法執

innate delusions 倶生惑

innate grasping at the self of a phenomenon 倶生法我執

innate grasping of self and person 倶生人我執

innate ignorance 根本無明

innate joy 倶生喜

innate spirits 倶生神

innate view of self 倶生我見

innately possessed wisdom 根本智

innately produced afflictions 倶生煩惱

inner and outer sciences 內外兼明

inner and secret 內祕

inner appropriation 內執受

inner box of a coffin 內箱

inner buddha hall 內佛堂, 內願堂, 持佛堂

inner court 內院

inner dharma 內法

inner emptiness 內虛

inner garbhadhātu 內胎

inner garment 中宿依, 中着依, 內衣

inner group 內衆

inner meaning 內義

inner mind 中心

inner monk 內乞

inner offerer 供奉, 內供, 內供奉

inner perfuming 內熏

inner practice hall 內道塲

inner ranks 內陣

inner realization 內證

inner realm 內界

inner scriptures 內經

inner seeds 內種

inner studies 內明

inner study 內學

inner unconditioned 內無爲

inner wisdom 內智

inner worldlings 內凡

innumerable and limitless eons 無量無數劫

innumerable bodies 無量身

innumerable characteristics 無量相

innumerable differences 千差

innumerable eons 無量劫

innumerable minor marks 無量好

innumerable practices 無量行

innumerable sufferings 無量苦

innumerable vehicles 無量乘

innumerable worlds 無量世, 無量世界


inscription 墓碑銘

insecure 不安隱

insecurity 不安隱性

inseparability 不離性

insight accordant with reality 如實知見

insight arising from hearing 聞所成慧

insight of cattle and sheep 牛羊心眼, 牛羊眼

insipid 得微薄

insoluble union 和合不離

insovereign 不自在

inspection rounds 巡寮

inspector 檢校

instant of a single thought-moment 一念之頃

instant of thought 一念頃

instantaneity of the highest worldly meditative state 世第一法無間

instantaneous path 無間道

instantaneously produced karmic impressions 無間生習氣

instantly arisen 無間生

instruct 示教,

instruct and guide 化導

instruction in the teachings 化法

instructional preceptor 教授師

instructional text 教文

instructions 傅訓

instrumental case 具格, 具聲

intellectual ability of memory 隨念智

intelligent 上智

intelligently mindful 委念

intense desire 猛利貪欲, 饕餮

intense forbearance 猛利忍

intention 行蘊

intention for control 調伏意

intention for emancipation 出離意樂

intention to attain nirvāṇa in the present circumstance 現法得涅槃

intention to protect the dharma 護法心

inter the bones 入骨

intercourse in the Four and Tuṣita Heavens 四忉利交形


intermediate aggregate 中蘊

intermediate existence 中陰

intermediate state 中有, 中般

intermediate state of meditation 中間三昧, 中間定, 中間禪, 中間靜慮

intermingling cause 和合因

internal and external 內外

internal and external are unified 內外打性一片

internal and external emptiness 內外空

internal appropriation 內執

internal cause 內因

internal clarity 內等淨

internal conceptions 內想

internal consciousness 內識

internal emptiness 內空

internal feeling 內受

internal hindrances 內障

internal maṇḍala 內心曼荼羅

internal observation 內觀

internal perception 內緣

internal realm 內根

internal self 內我

internal transformations 內門轉

internally 內身

internally witnessing and cultivating the buddha nature 內證修性


interpenetrated Buddhism 通佛教

interpenetrated recitation sect 大念佛宗

interpenetration 交徹,

interpreting the meaning of the teachings 法義釋詞

interrogatory answer 反問記

interrupted 有間


intersections 交道

intoner 唄士, 唄師

intranscendable guardians 不可越守護

intrinsic ignorance 元品無明

intrinsically enlightened character of the original mind 本覺道

intrinsically pure 本性淸淨

introduce 引入

inverted 顚倒

inverted connection 倒合

inverted exc1usion 倒離

investigating true principles 訪求正法

investigation 三彌叉

investigation of names 名尋思, 名求, 隨名求

investigation of substances (or "given things") 隨事求

investigation of substances 事尋思, 事求

invisible 不可見, 無見

invisible aid of the Buddha 冥加

invisible and materially insubstantial or unobstructive form 不可見無對色

invisible and materially obstructive 不可見有對

invisible crown 無見頂

invisible hosts 冥衆

invisible mark on the head 無見頂相

invite disaster 取禍

inviter 召請童子, 阿羯囉灑

invocation 口稱

invoker 咒願師

invoking the name of Amitābha 讚歎門

involved with the provisional 帶權

involving oneself in the making of offerings 供養攝受

irrefutable 不可破, 不可破壞


irresponsibility 不癡毘尼

irritates 逼迫惱亂

is confused 有顚倒

is exactly the body 卽身

is not counted together with 不墮其數

is well mindful of 善護念

island 踊出處

isn't it so?

it is also like 又如

it is also said that... 且說

it is called 名爲

it is just as you have said 如汝所說

it is just... 卽爲

it is like 且如

items of continual everyday use as the communal property of the monastic community 常住常住

items of universal everyday use 十方常住, 十方常住物

its number is increasingly great 其數彌多

jade and cowries 珂貝

jade Buddha 玉佛

jade ring 玉環


jewel 羅陀, 羅陀那

jewel of faith 信財

jewel-bearing sons of Vaiśālī 寶積長者子

jeweled bell 寶鈴

jeweled brow 玉豪

jeweled crown of the five buddhas 五佛冠, 五佛寶冠

jeweled crown of the five celestials 五寶天冠

jeweled crown of the five wisdoms 五智冠, 五智寶冠

jeweled curtain 交露

jeweled gāthās 寶偈

jeweled pillar of the seven tathāgatas 七如來寶塔

jeweled trees 玉樹

jewel-flower 玉花

jewels 珍寶

Jiaoshan code of rules 焦山規約

join 羅列

joined with each other 互相應

joining of the three mysteries 三密瑜伽

joining the two and the two 二二合緣

journey 遊行

joy and eloquence in expounding the teachings 樂說辯才

Joyful 善快

joyful accumulation 樂集

joyful fruit 樂果

joyful giving 喜捨

joyful gods 大聖天, 大聖歡喜天

joy-grove garden 喜林苑

joyous mind 樂心

judge of qualifications 教授師

junior 丙丁

junior members of an assembly 會下

junior monk 下臈

just like a heavenly drum 猶如天鼓

just like space 猶如虛空

just like that 如是如是

just like the prior... 卽如前

just monks 義僧

just only stay 唯住

just risen 盛時

kalpa of three thousand dust motes 三千塵點劫

karma 報應, 羊石

karma accumulated from previous lives 先世業

karma complete in one thought 一念業成

karma of the seven sins 七支業

karma-basis 依業

karman 羯摩

karmic defilement 業染

karmic impressions 習氣

karmic impressions of affliction 煩惱習

karmic impressions of deluded attachment 妄執習氣

karmic impressions of ignorance 無明氣

karmic impressions of terms and words 名言習氣

karmic impressions that function without specific limitations 通習氣

karmic mental function 心作

karmic momentum 習氣力

karmic power of the great vows 大願業力

karmic wisdom of the conventional world 世間業智

kaṣāya 袈沙野

keep company at meals 陪食

kept overnight 內宿

Kern, Johan Hendrik Caspar 克恩

kernels of ignorance 無明界

key point 樞要

killing animals 煞畜生

killing because of being praised for it 讚嘆殺, 讚嘆煞, 讚歎殺

killing by words 口業殺

killing through curse 呪殺

killing unintentionally 不得故殺

kindness that is equal from every perspective 平等憐愍


king of emptiness 空王

king of great quiescence 大寂王

king of heaven 天王

king of the Brahman-heaven 大梵天王, 大梵王

king of the dharma 法主

king of the dharma—the Buddha 法王

king of the heaven where one has power to convert others (?) 他化自在天王

king of the herd 牛王

king of the monks 牟尼王

King of the Ten Kinds of Nectar 十甘露王

King of the Ten Vows 十願王

knapsack 乞網

kneeling with both knees at once 互胡跪, 互跪

knit the brows

knowable 可了, 可知, 得知, 應知

knower of reality 如實知者

knower of the Secular World 世間解

knowing the minds of others 他心智者

knowledge abiding in the marvelous dharma 妙法住智

knowledge of all forms of previous existence of oneself and others 識宿命通

knowledge of other's minds 他心智

knowledge of others' minds, knowledge of others' thoughts 他心智證通

knowledge of particular things 隨順智, 類智

knowledge of reality that is universally accepted by ordinary beings 世間極成眞實

knowledge of the arts 工巧明, 巧業明

knowledge of the divine ear 天耳智證通

knowledge of the divine eye 天眼智證通, 天眼智通

known 起識了別

known for virtue 名德

knows when one has eaten enough 食知量

Korean Buddhist Canon 高麗大藏經

lack of conscience 無慚

lack of conscience and lack of shame 無慚無愧

lack of devoted interest 無勝解


lacking a cause 無有因

lacking a cause for coming into being 無生因

lacking appearance 無影像

lacking associative thought 無想

lacking basis 無依

lacking cessation 無有滅

lacking connection 無合

lacking distinctions 無有差別

lacking divine vision 無眼見者

lacking exclusion 無離

lacking expedient means 無方便

lacking hatred 除瞋恚

lacking knowledge of the minds of others 無他心智者

lacking life 無命

lacking mental disturbance 無惑

lacking possessions 無財

lacking reasons in common 無同類因

lacking seeds 無種子

lacking self 無有我

lacking self-nature 無自性

lacking the dharma of parinirvāṇa 無般涅槃法

lacking the predisposition to attain liberation 無涅槃性

lacking the predisposition toward cessation 無止息性

lacking the same type of reasons 無同類

lacking the three poisons 無三毒

lacking thorough knowledge 不了知

lacking worldly aspirations 無俗意樂

lacks birth and death 無有生死

lacks taste 無味

lacquer bucket 漆桶

lama 喇嘛, 喇嘛


lamp flame 燈火

lamp light 燈光

lamp of the wonderful Law 妙法燈

lamp-flame burning 燈焰生

land of all fragrances 衆香國土

land of enjoyment by others 他受用土

land of no-retrogression 不退土

land of remainder 有餘土

land of sufferance 忍土

land of transformation 變化土

language 言語

lantern 燈爐, 燈籠

lantern festival at the first full moon 上元燒燈

lapis lazuli 吠琉璃, 吠瑠璃, 吠瑠璃耶, 樓黎, 琉璃, 琉璃寶, 瑠璃, 璢璃

large banner painting 掛佛

large elephant 大象

large knees 大膝

large lecture hall 大講堂

large monkey 獼猴

large white lotus 大白蓮華

latently defiled existence 煩惱隨眠有

later birth 後生

latitude and longitude 橫縱

latter dharma 末法

latter part 後分

latter part of the evening 後夜

law of the king 王法

lax in regard to both wisdom and moral discipline 乘戒倶緩

lay male disciple 優婆塞, 優婆娑柯

lay male disciples 優波娑迦

lay male practitioner 伊蒲塞

laymen 優婆塞

laywoman 優婆夷, 優婆私柯, 鄔婆斯迦

laywomen 優婆夷, 優婆私柯, 鄔婆斯迦

lazy monks 稗沙門

lazy-minded 心懈怠


leader 仙尊

leaning board 依版

learned disciples of the sage 多聞聖弟子

learned monk who occupies the chief seat 立僧首座

learned ones of the world 世聰慧者

learner 有學

learning wholesome behavior 受學善行

least of the least 下下

leather sandals 亟縛屣

leave affliction 出離煩惱

leave birth and death 出離生死

leave the secular life 出夫家

leave the world and enter the path 出道

lecture hall 講堂

lecture on every fifth day 五參上堂

led away by others other things 他所引

leftover food 食殘

lend assistance (?) 作翼


lesser capacity 下根

lesser three realizations 下三果

lesser vehicle 下乘

lesser vehicle meditation 小乘禪

lesser vehicle precepts 小乘戒

lethal weapons 煞生具

let's say there is... 設有

letters and words 文言

level of effort 有功用位

level of purity and impurity 不淨淨位

level of unenlightened sentient beings 凡夫位

liberate completely 究竟離

liberate others 度脫

liberated 已得解脫

liberated one 解脫者

liberating practice 出離行

liberation , 解脫, 透脫

liberation experienced by the adherents of the two vehicles 二乘解脫

liberation from affliction 煩惱解脫

liberation from the cognitive hindrances 所知障解脫

liberation not contingent on time 不時解脫

liberation observing external form without internal conceptions of form 內無色想觀外色解脫

liberation of a single taste 解脫一味

liberation of the embodied looking at a form 內有色想觀諸色解脫

liberation of the mind 心脫, 心解脫

liberation of through concentration and wisdom 心慧解脫

liberation through emptiness 空解脫門

liberation through morality 事度

liberation through signlessness 無相解脫門

life and purity 命梵

life force 命根

life perilous as the (unscaleable) top of the loneliest peak 太孤危生

life potential 命根

life span 儞尾單

life-and-death as it is experienced by unenlightened sentient beings 凡夫生死

life-nourishing studies 生命思想

life's hardships 命難

light 會日

light from a Buddha's mind 心光

light of a life 命光

light of faith 信光

light of the Buddha 佛光

light the fire 下火, 下炬

lightless buddha 無光佛


lightning and flint sparks 電光石火

lightning and shadows 電影

light-protecting bodhisattva 護明菩薩

like a bubble 如泡

like a cloud 如雲

like a dream 如夢

like a flash of lightning 如電光

like a person 如人

like a phantasm 如幻夢

like a raging current 如瀑流

like a shadow 如影

like an apparition 猶如變化

like an echo 如響

like an illusion 如幻

like fire 如火

like lightning 如電

like myself 如我

like oneself 如自己

like piling up firewood 積薪

like smoke 如焰

like that 如彼

like the prior 如前

like the sūtra(s) 如契經

like what? 何如

likṣā 一蟣

limited 狹少

limited and limitless 有邊無邊

limited culpability 限分

limited wisdom 少智, 少智慧

limitless 無極, 無涯, 無邊

limitless and endless 無邊無際

limitless body 無極之體, 無邊身

limitless consciousness 識無邊

limitless light 光明無量, 無量光

limitless realm 無邊刹境

limitless realm of reality 無邊法界

limitless world 無邊世界

limits of the fifth wheel 五輪際


line by line 句句

linen garment 讖蒭

linguistic convention, or custom; 假說

link 羅列,

lion 僧訶, 呵梨, , , 獅子, 訶利, 訶梨

lion among men 人中師子, 人師子, 人獅子, 人雄師子

lion king 獅子王

lion's right side sleeping posture 右脅師子臥

lion's roar , 獅子吼

lion's seat 師子坐

lion-throne 猊座

lip service 口頭

lip service samādhi 口頭三昧

listener 聞者

literal, word for word translation 逐語譯

little merit 小功德

live together often 共住多時

lives alone 獨住

living being 命者

living together 同居

load of night-soil 屎擔子

loathing and aspiration 厭求

locus 他那, 吒那,

locus of mental functioning 行處

lofty ,

long protected 久護

long time

long-abiding one 久住者

look up

looking for repayment of favors 求報恩

lord , 伊沙, 伽梵

lord of a world 世界主

lord of alms 檀主, 檀施

lord of the earth 大地主

lord of the world 世主

loss 債負, 損減, 退失

loss in each thought-moment 念念失

loss of mindfulness 念失

lotus among men 人中分陀利華, 人分陀利華

lotus dais of the highest stage 上品蓮臺

lotus pond with eight attributes 八德蓮池

lotus position 結跏趺坐, 蓮華坐, 趺坐, 跏坐, 跏座, 跏趺, 跏趺坐

lotus posture 蓮華座, 跏趺坐

lotus-pedestal 蓮華臺

lotus-samādhi 一切如來諸法本性滿淨蓮華三昧, 蓮華三昧

lotus-treasury world 蓮華藏世界

loud noise 嚕多

loving words 愛語

lower eight regions 下八地

lower garments 下衣

lower half of the body 下身分

lower level 下品

lower levels 下地

lower order 下衆

lower position 下肩

lower realm 下界

lower realms 下塵

lower stomach area 丹田

lower three 下三

lower three meditative states 下三靜慮地

lowest level of gods 天子

lowest of the highest three levels 上品下生

lowest of the lowest class 下品下生

lowing of a great ox 大牛音

lucky day 吉日良辰

luminous 光喻

luminous and quiescent 照寂

luminous mind-temple of the indestructible vajra 不壞金剛光明心殿

luminous ray 光瑞

lunch 齋食

lust 欲想

lying 妄言

lying down

mad elephant 狂象

mad wisdom 狂慧

made by both together 共作

magic formulae 咒文

magical palace 化宮殿

magical techniques 幻法

magician 幻人, 幻士

magician of the five powers 五通仙

main buddha hall 本堂

main causes 能生因

main idea 意旨

main tenet 本論

main text 大本

maintained by the power of stabilizing meditation 奢摩他力之所任持

maintained constituents 住持依

maintaining consciousness 執持識

maintaining one's own aims (?) 防自意樂

maintaining one's practice after awakening 保任行

maintaining power 住持力

maintaining practice after awakening 保護任持

maintenance of contemplation 運心觀想

maintenance of mindfulness in the six directions 六方護念

maintenance of moral discipline 齋法

Maitreya Hall 彌勒殿, 龍華殿

major basic factors of affliction 大煩惱地法

major chiliocosm 大千世界

major difference 大殊

major events of the life of the Buddha 佛忌

make an accusation 作擧

make known 令知

make manifest 令現在前

make obeisance 作禮

make offerings 奉加, 奉納, 行布施

make offerings to the buddhas 供養諸佛

make paper flowers 造花

make perfect sense in one's explanation of a matter 證成道理

make sentient beings realize 令證

make them abandon... 令其捨

make them understand 令解

maker 作家

makes this kind of explanation 作如是說

making a living by cultivating the land 下口食

making images 造像

making manifest offerings 事供養

making offerings to images 影供

making ornaments 作莊嚴具

making the rounds with a rod 巡錫

making the vow 作願

male and female lay believers 信士信女

male and female slave(s) 奴婢

male and female unicorns 麒麟

male regent of the moon 月天子

man comes into this world empty-handed and leaves it empty-handed 空手來空手去

man impotent due to lack of control of emissions 伊梨沙掌拏, 妒黃門

manager 典知

maṇḍala of the five supernatural powers 五通曼荼羅

maṇḍala of the five vajrasattvas 五祕密曼荼羅

maṇḍala of the seventeen sages 十七尊曼荼羅

maṇḍalas of both realms 兩界曼荼羅, 兩界曼陀羅, 兩部曼荼羅

mandarin orange

mango , 阿摩洛迦

mango grove 菴婆羅園, 菴沒羅園, 菴羅林

manifest 照了, 現照, 顯轉

manifest activity 表業

manifest activity perfuming seeds 現行熏種子

manifest and hidden 顯密

manifest and unmanifest activity 作無作, 表無表, 表無表業

manifest characteristic 現相

manifest faults 現行過失

manifest form 影現, 現色, 表色

manifest form and unmanifest form 表無表色

manifest heaviness 現重

manifest object 前境

manifest phenomena 現行法

manifest virtue 表德

manifest world 現法

manifestation of a body in this world by a buddha or high-rank bodhisattva 出現

manifestation of consciousness 識轉

manifestation of dullness (?) 行不明

manifestation of enlightenment 現前等覺

manifestation of phenomena 法現

manifestation of the afflictions 煩惱轉

manifestation of unattached cognition 無著智現前

manifesting 合說

manifesting consciousness 現識, 顯識

manifesting the correct principle 立法

manifestly 運運

manifestly existing 現有

manifestly functioning 現行現起

manifestly increase 運運增長

manifests spontaneously 任運現行

manners 會式

mantra of light 光明眞言


many activities 多行

many bodies 多體

many desires 多貪

many eons 多劫

many people 衆人

many sentient beings 多有情, 多衆生

many times 多時

many-footed 多足

Māra King 魔王

māra realm 魔境, 魔界, 魔道

māra-country 魔鄕

māra-legions 衆魔

mark 標記

mark of abiding 住相

mark of attachment to coarse discrimination 麤分別執著相

mark of emptiness 空相

mark of karma 無明業相

mark of mental objects 心境界相

mark of personage 丈夫相

mark of sentient beinghood 衆生相

mark of the great conch of the teachings 大法螺相

marked 可相

marked superiority in praiseworthy merit 可稱讚功德殊勝

market , 街方

markless abode having exertion 有功用無相住

markless cultivation 無相修

markless enlightenment 無相菩提

markless equality 無相平等

markless field of blessings 無相福田

markless mind 無相之心

markless thusness 無相眞如

markless wisdom 無相慧

marks mutually interpenetrate 相卽圓融

marks of cognition 了別相

marks of conditions 緣相

marks of defilement 染相

marks of meditative absorption 三摩地相

marks of otherness 他相

marks of personhood 人相

marks of practice 修行相

marks of purity 淨相

marks of the mind 心跡

marks of the wind 風相

marks of the world 世相

marks of the world are permanent 世間相常住

marks of transformation 變相

marriage tree 合婚樹

marvelous activity 妙行

marvelous attributes 妙相

marvelous cause 妙因

marvelous cognition of a tathāgata 如來妙智

marvelous cognition that apprehends all kinds of phenomena 一切種妙智

marvelous dharma 微妙法

marvelous dharma throne 妙法座

marvelous dharma-rain 妙法雨

marvelous enlightenment 妙覺

marvelous existence 妙有

marvelous expedient wisdom 妙方便慧

marvelous function 妙用

marvelous land 妙土

marvelous meditative absorption 妙定

marvelous mind 妙心

marvelous no-self cognition 無我妙智

marvelous observation 妙觀察

marvelous observing cognition 妙觀察智

marvelous provisional 妙假

marvelous psychic powers 微妙神力

marvelous purification 妙善修治

marvelous purity 妙淸淨

marvelous realization of the eternally abiding buddha-nature 佛性常住妙果

marvelous response 妙應

marvelous skill 妙術

marvelous teaching 妙門

marvelous transformation 妙化

marvelous true nature 妙眞如性

marvelous vehicle 妙乘

marvelous vehicles 妙車

marvelous wisdom 妙慧

marvelously accomplished 妙成就

marvelously enlightened nature 妙覺性

marvelously transformed heavenly kings 妙化天王

masses for the dead on every seventh day for seven times 七七齋

master and disciple 師學

master of a hermitage 庵主

master of a thousand treatises 千部論主, 千部論師

master of reality 如理師

master of the house 屋裏人

master of the three teachings 三教法師

master of transformation 化主

masters of namaḥ

mat 座具

matching a metaphor to its application 合喩

material 有形

material body 爲物身

material compounds 色聚

material existence 色法

material objects 色境

materialism 唯物論

matrix of the thus come one(s) 如來藏

matters that are explained 所言說事

maturation 異熟

maturation of suffering 受苦異熟


meal bell 齋鐘

meal drum 齋鼓

meal offered to the Buddha 佛餉

mealtime 食時

mealtime invocation 唱食

mean 卑屈

meaning (?) 伎神

meaning 意說

meaning and its aspects 義相

meaning not fully disclosed 不了義

meaning of a bright light of great wisdom 大智慧光明義

meaning of cause

meaning of directive karma 引業義

meaning of immovability 不動義

meaning of middle way 中道義

meaning of 'self' 我義

meaning of the doctrine 法義

meaning of the passages of a scripture 經意

meaning of the skillful means 方便義

meaning of unique to

meaning of universal 平等義

means of the great vow of universal salvation 大願平等方便

measurable 可稱量

meat-eating 食肉

mechanical arts 巧業

Medicine Buddha Hall 藥師殿

medicine for the mind 心藥

medicine made from the putrid urine (of cattle) 陳棄藥

medicine of immortality 不死藥

meditating on impurity 修不淨觀

meditation , 靜慮

meditation by ordinary beings 凡夫禪

meditation of boundless space 識處定

meditation of not forgettiing 不忘禪

meditation of suchness 眞如三昧

meditation of the supreme vehicle 最上乘禪

meditation of vast and universal tranquility 廣普寂定

meditation on achieving the development of self and all others to the utmost 一切禪

meditation on all Mahāyāna practices and actions 一切行禪

meditation on equality 平等觀

meditation on impurity 不淨想, 不淨觀

meditation on non-production 無生觀

meditation on ridding all sufferers from the miseries of passion and delusion 除煩惱禪

meditation on the difficulties of certain dhyāna conditions 難禪

meditation on the entrance to all the (superior) dhyāna conditions 一切門禪

meditation on the filth of the body 循身觀

meditation on the five elements 五大觀, 五智輪, 五輪三摩地, 五輪成身觀, 五輪觀

meditation on the good 善人禪

meditation on the great perfect mirror-wisdom 大圓鏡智觀

meditation on the infinite meanings of reality 無量義處三昧

meditation on the lack of existence of a perduring, definitive ego or personality of living beings 人空觀

meditation on the six elements 六大觀

meditation on the six natures 六種觀

meditation on the ten illusions 十喩觀, 十緣觀

meditation practitioner 修觀行者

meditation that investigates reality-principles 觀察義禪

meditation trapped in characteristics 相觀

meditative absorption 三摩地

meditative absorption of one characteristic 一相三昧

meditative concentration 禪定

meditative equipoise 三摩越, 三摩鉢底

meditative repetition 三摩地念誦

meditative stabilization going as a hero 健行三摩地

meditative stabilization going like a hero 健行定

meditator 修靜慮者

medium-length chiliocosm 中千世界

medium-length eon 中劫

medium-sized vegetation 中草

meet and revere

meeting days for renewal of vows 布薩日

melancholy 惛沈


memorial tablet 位牌

memorize and recite 受持讀誦

memory 記心

men and ghosts 人鬼

men and gods 人天

men and gods, the most sublime good rebirths 人天勝妙善果

mendicant 乏道, 乞食者

menial 吃栗多

mental 心所有

mental anguish 鬱蒸

mental approach 心趣入

mental appropriation 心執受

mental attachment 心執

mental attitude of vowing 誓心

mental chatter 意言

mental cognition of the environment 心緣

mental deliberation 心量

mental distress 心擾亂

mental disturbances in a specific aspect 別相惑

mental equipoise 心定

mental factors (dharmas) not associated with mind (or matter) 心不相應行法

mental factors 心所, 心所有法, 心所法

mental factors that operate everywhere 大地法

mental faculty 心根

mental focus 作意思惟, 心專注

mental focus on impurity 不淨作意思惟

mental function within a dream 夢中心行

mental functions (factors) directly associated with the mind 心相應

mental functions 心所有法, 心行

mental light 心光明

mental luminosity 心靈

mental mastery (flexibility, adaptability, etc) 心有堪能

mental objects 內塵

mental pollution 心垢

mental power 心力

mental resolve 心願

mental state 心住

mental state containing the activity of both coarse and pure faith 麤淨信倶行之心

mental state of mundane goodness 世間善心

mental state of the formless meditation heaven 上心

mental state of turning away 厭離心

mental suffering 心苦

mental traces 心迹

mental transformation 心轉


mentally arouses the correct vow 心發正願

merchant caste 吠奢, 吠舍

merely principle according with conditions 但理隨緣

merges with thusness 合如

merit attained through cultivation 修成德

merit of aiding others 利他功德

merit of the three treasures 三寶功德

merit of virtuous roots 善根功德

meritless 無功德

messenger 訥多

messenger of the Buddha 佛使

messengers of Akṣobhya 不動如來使, 無動使者

messengers of darkness 冥使

metamorphic devī on the head of Śiva 伎藝天女

metamorphosis of form 化色

metaphor , 比喩, 譬喻

metaphor and principle 喩法

metaphor cannot express it 譬喩所不能及

metaphor of the raft 筏喩, 筏喻

metaphorical speech 喩語, 喻語

meteor 天狗

method , 方道

method of calming 穌息處, 蘇息處

methods of illusion 幻門

methods of practice 行法

midday meal 中食

middle cause 中因

middle chanting 中唄

middle continents 中洲

middle garment in value 中價衣

middle kingdom 中國

middle of the highest three levels 上品中生

middle of the lowest class 下品中生

middle of the summer 夏中

middle path 中道

middle rank 中品, 中輩

middle truth 中諦

middle vehicle 中乘

middle way 中道

middle way as the highest truth 中道第一義

middle way of according with the source 中道應本

middle-level constituent 中界

middle-rank contemplation 中輩觀

middling and higher classes 中上品

middling and lower levels 中下

middling and superior 中上

middling capacity 中根

middling chiliocosm 中千界

middling compassion 中悲

middling disciple 中士

middling level good roots 中品善根

middling level maturation 中品成熟

middling patience 中忍


milk flavor 乳味

milk of cow and ass 牛驢二乳

milk-wood 乳木

million recitations of the name of the Buddha 百萬遍念佛

millions of billions 倶胝那庾多, 倶胝那由他

mimosa 珂梨羅


mind and consciousness 心識

mind and eye 心目

mind and mental factors 心及心法, 心心所, 心心所法, 心心數, 心心數法, 心心法, 心王心所

mind as a whole and its various factors 王數

mind as container 心器

mind as it is 心相

mind as master 心師

mind as reality-body 心法身

mind as spirit 心神

mind as the moon 心月

mind attains mastery 心得自在

mind compared to an ox 識牛

mind dependent on others 依他心

mind dust 心塵

mind filled with great compassion 大悲心

mind following rough engagement and detailed examination 意隨尋伺, 意隨尋隨伺

mind free of discrimination 無分別心

mind ground 心地

mind intent on seeking enlightenment 求道心

mind is authentic 心眞實

mind is empty 心空

mind is unsullied 心無雜染

mind lacking defiled attachment 無愛染心

mind liberated at the level of the mundane truth 世諦心脫

mind like ice 心冰

mind like water 心水

mind not associated with affliction 不相應心

mind of arising and ceasing 心生滅心

mind of certainty 決定心

mind of enlightenment 冒地質多

mind of faith is the basis 信心爲本

mind of glowing wisdom 焰慧心

mind of great enlightenment 大道心

mind of great faith 大信心

mind of mastery 大勝心

mind of omniscience 一切智心

mind of perfect receptivity 受位心

mind of the open way 現前心

mind of the single reality realm 一法界心

mind of the tathāgatagarbha 如來藏心

mind of the ten good qualities 十善心

mind of the triple world 三世心

mind that is removed from afflictions, etc. 心遠離

mind waves 心波

mind within 內心

mind yearning for the Buddha 心懷戀慕

mind, mentation, and cognition 心意識理

mind, thought, and cognition 心意識

mind-field 心田, 心處

mind-flower 心華

mindful and not vacant 心念不空

mindful of charity 念布施, 念捨, 念施

mindful of kindness 念恩

mindful without forgetting 念無忘失

mindfulness , 念心

mindfulness and wisdom 念慧

mindfulness of (the selflessness of) phenomena 法念處

mindfulness of body 身念處

mindfulness of breathing 出入息觀

mindfulness of Buddhist studies 如來學問念處

mindfulness of dependent co-arising 緣起觀

mindfulness of morality 念戒

mindfulness of positive the local town 都邑聚落念處

mindfulness of sensation 受念處

mindfulness of the Buddhas and to be reborn 念佛往生

mindfulness of the cultivation of good reputation 名聞利養念處

mindfulness of the elimination of afflictions 斷諸煩惱念處

mindfulness of the inevitability of death 念死, 念當終亡

mindfulness of the monastery 阿蘭若念處

mindfulness of the objective realm 境界念處

mindfulness of the other power of a buddha 他力念佛

mindfulness of thought 心念處

mind-jewel 心珠

mind-king 心王

mind-king of the eight consciousnesses 八識心王

mind-king tathāgata 心王如來

mind-lamp 心燈

mind-life 心命

mind-mirror 心鏡

mind-nature 心性

mind-only 唯心

mind-only verse 唯心偈

mind-road 心路

mind's (original) purity 心淸淨

mind's extreme 心極

mind's eye 心眼

mind's initial movement 心初起

minds of others 他心

mind-sea 心海

mind-seal 心印

mind-source 心原

mind-stream 心流

mind-vehicle 心乘

mine 麼麼

ministers of the dharma 法臣

minor compassion 小悲

minor eon 一小劫

miraculous birth-and-death 變易生死

miraculous power of expounding the teachings 說法神變

mirage 熱時炎, 陽炎

mirror 好照

mirror of heaven and earth 天地鏡

mirror that is free from contaminated phenomena 法出離鏡

miscellaneous esoterism 雜密

miscellaneous or varied practice 雜修


mistake 差違,


mistaken attachment 倒執, 迷執

mistaken behavior 邪行

mistaken discrimination 妄計, 邪想分別

mistaken ego 倒我

mistaken moral discipline 邪戒

mistaken perception or cognition 似量

mistaken prediction 異記

mistakenly inserted and/or unnecessary word 衍字

mistakenly seeing the body as an individual 僞身

mitigating cultivation 令薄修習

mixed sensations 雜受

mixed together 雜立

molecule 微聚

moment 叉拏

momentariness 刹那相

moment-to-moment extinction 念念滅

moment-to-moment impermanence 念念無常

momentum of practices 行勢力

monastery 法會社

monastery clerk 內史, 內記, 庫頭

monastery controller 羯磨陀那

monastery cook 油頭

monastery dining hall 齋場

monastery guard 護寺

monastery kitchen 香廚

monastic deportment 僧儀

monastic possessions, or things 僧祇物

monastic year 一臈, 一臘

monk 煏芻, 阿師

monk superintendent 僧統, 沙門統, 沙門都統

monk tangled up in the grass 草繋比丘, 草繫比丘

monkey ,

monkey-ground 獮猴地

monkey-like mind 心猿

monks and nuns 僧尼

monks and the laity 僧俗

monks and their followers 僧徒

monk's apartment 寮房

monk's community 和僧

monk's community sea 和僧海

monk's dormitory 僧房

monk's garment 山衲

monk's hall 僧堂

monks of extensive learning 多聞比丘

monk's or nun's clothes 法服

monk's ordination 比丘戒式

monk's patchwork robe 僧伽梨, 僧伽胝, 僧伽黎, 衲伽梨

monks precepts 僧戒

monk's rank 僧位

monks registrar 僧錄

monk's robe 偏衫, 弊衲衣, , 衲衣, 衲袈裟, 袈裟

monks robe

monk's robe as a markless field of merit 無相福田衣

monks robes made from feathers 翅夷羅

monk's staff 隙棄羅

monster fish 大魚

month 麼洗

monthly day of remembrance 月忌

months of purification 齋月


moon chariot 月輦

moon contemplation 月輪觀

moon essence jewel 月精, 月精摩尼

moon eyebrows 月眉

moon rat 月鼠

moon-face Buddha 月面佛

moon-king 月王, 設賞迦

moonlit altar 月壇

moon-love pearl 月愛珠

moon-palace 月宮

moons shining 月明

moon-store 月藏

moon-wheel samādhi 三昧月輪相, 月輪三昧

morally indeterminate phenomena 無記法

morally indeterminate quality 無記性

more and more 倍增, 彌多


most distinguished 最爲殊勝

most eminent in terms of possession of the divine eye 天眼第一

most excellent 上妙, 上首, 最勝妙, 最極殊妙, 最爲勝

most excellent activities 最勝業

most excellent category 最上上品

most excellent person 上上人

most excellent state of non-carelessness 最勝無放逸住

most excellent taste 最上味

most extremely 最極

most extremely long 最極長

most extremely subtle 最極微細

most extremely subtle impedimentary folly 極微細礙愚癡

most extremely vast 最極廣大

most honored 無上兩足尊, 無上尊

most honored among devas 天尊

most honored among human beings 一切人中尊

most honored among the two-legged 二足尊

most honored of the world-honored 一切世尊最尊特身

most honored one 最勝尊

most incredibly pure 最極淸淨

most perfect completion 最極圓滿

most profound account 最深密記

most revered among men 人中尊

most sublime appropriate offerings 上妙正行供養

most sublime dharma 上妙法

most transcendent 最極超過

most ultimate fruit 上上果

most virulent afflictions 煩惱上品

most virulent of the afflictions 上品煩惱

most welcome 窣莎揭哆

mostly abide 多所住, 多所安住

mostly the same 大同

motes in a sunbeam 隙遊塵

mother 女母, 阿摩

mother and father 阿摩爹爹

mother fish 魚母

mother of buddhas with the great radiant umbrella 大白傘蓋佛母

mother of enlightenment in the three times 三世覺母

mother of great enlightenment 大覺母

mother of the Vajra group 忙莽鷄

motion of the mind 心動

mound , 倶攞,


mountain goat

mountain mists

mountain of form 形山

mountain of swords 刀山

mouth sign 口印

moved 所動

moving while facing the right shoulder toward the object 右繞

much idle chatter 大綺言

much speech 諸言

much to do 多有所作

mud of affliction 煩惱泥

muddy water 泥水

multicolored 衆色

multi-hued 衆彩

multitude of disciples 徒衆

mundane 世間, 凡俗

mundane abode 凡住

mundane affairs 俗事

mundane alms 世間檀

mundane and supramundane 世間出世, 世間出世間

mundane and supramundane phenomena 世出世法

mundane causes of suffering 世俗苦因

mundane entanglements 俗緣

mundane goodness 世間善

mundane indifference to objects of desire 世間離欲

mundane laws 世間法

mundane meditation 世間靜慮

mundane mentality 世間心

mundane path 世間趣

mundane paths 世間道

mundane paths of cultivation 世間修道

mundane phenomena 世法

mundane precepts 俗戒

mundane pure stillness of thought 世間淸淨靜慮

mundane purity 世間淨, 世間淸淨

mundane reality 俗有

mundane self 俗我

mundane status 世間位

mundane theories 世論

mundane truth 世諦, 俗諦

mundane vehicle 世間乘

mundane virtue 世福

mundane wisdom 世智, 世間般若, 俗智

murder 煞人

music 伎樂, 妓樂

music gods 半支迦

musical gandharvas 樂乾闥婆

musical trees 樂音樹

mutual acceptance of the positive example 共許同品

mutual containment of the ten realms 十界互具

mutual dependence 囘互, 相依相關

mutual distinction between large and small 大小相對分別

mutual effectiveness 共功

mutual entering 相卽相入

mutual inclusion 遍收

mutually , 互爲

mutually acting 互起

mutually inclusive 不相離

my present mind 今我此心

my school 今家

myriad faults 衆過, 衆過患

myriad mental disturbances 衆惑

myriad practices subsumed in the six perfections 六度萬行

myriads 千萬

mysterious and deep 幽深

mysterious benefit 冥利, 冥益

mysterious hall 玄堂

mysterious perfuming 冥熏

mysterious response 冥應

mysterious supernatural power 冥通

mystery within mystery 玄玄

mystics of yore 古昔諸仙


name and embodiment 名體

name and form 名字, 名相, 名身

name and robe 名衲

name is provisional 名假

name only 唯名

name plates 照牌

named 受名

named by convention 呼召假名

namely 卽是

names, concepts, and designations 名想施設

naming of the obscurations (hindrances) 障名

narrow and inferior-mind 狹劣心

national treasure 國寶

natural abilities 天機

natural death 命盡死

natural or fundamental quality 機性

natural outcome 隨流果

natural wisdom 自然智

natural world 器世間, 器界

naturalism sickness 任病

nature as cause 性因

nature free from rebirth 離生性

nature of afflictions is emptiness 煩惱性空

nature of dependent arising 依他起性, 依他起自性

nature of fire 火性

nature of non-emptiness 不空之性

nature of ordinary beings 凡夫性, 凡性

nature of pervasive imagination 徧計所執性

nature of phenomena 諸法性

nature of the elements 大種性

nature of the tathāgata 如來性

nature of the tathāgatagarbha 如來藏性

nature of water 水性

nature that is not false 不虛妄性

natures of sentient beings 衆生性

near to perfect enlightenment 隣圓

near to wisdom 隣智

necessary 必然

necessity 合用

nectar of immortality 不死甘露, 阿密哩多

need not be taken as reality 不必如義

negating 撥無

negative example used by the opponent 他異品


neighbor(s) 隣近

neither annihilated nor arisen 不滅不生

neither arising nor ceasing 不生不滅

neither coming nor going 不來不去

neither delighted nor disappointed 不喜不憂

neither formed nor disintegrated 無成無壞

neither going nor coming 無去無來

neither impediment nor obscuration 無滯無障

neither increase nor decrease 不增不減

neither interrupted nor constant 不斷不常

neither position is accepted 倶不許

neither suffering nor pleasure 不苦不樂

neither talented nor pure 不才淨

neither the same nor different 不一不二, 不一不異, 不卽不離

neither two nor many 不二不異

neither two nor three 無二無三

neither walking nor sitting samādhi 非行非坐三昧

neither-thought-nor-no-thought concentration 非想非非想處

nescience in regard to manifest phenomena 事無知

nescient 無明者

net of afflictions 煩惱網

net of harmful influences 魔網

net of ignorance 無明網

net of the great teaching 大教網

never again 無復

never again manifest 不復現行

never again retrogress 無復退轉

never becomes buddha 永不成佛

never before experienced 希法, 阿浮陀達磨

never departing from the vision of the buddhas 不離見佛

never tiring and never faltering 無厭無劣

never turning-back wheel 不退輪

never turning-back wheel of the dharma 不退轉法輪

new and oldtranslations of the Buddhist canon 新舊兩譯

new insight or understanding one reaches oneself 自悟

next to nothing 隣虛

nice sounding bird 好聲鳥


night guardian 主夜神

nihilism 斷滅論,

nihilistic theories 斷論

nimbus 光相, 光背, 背光

nine (meditations on) the unconditioned 九無爲


nine abodes 九居, 九門

nine abodes of sentient beings 九有情居, 九有情處, 九衆生居

nine ascents to the hall 九參上堂

nine assemblies 九會

nine assemblies maṇḍala 九會曼陀羅

nine bonds 九結

nine causes and one effect 九因一果

nine character maṇḍala 九字曼荼羅

nine classes of karma 九品行業

nine contaminations 九流

nine days of fasting 九齋日

nine difficulties 九難

nine divisions of the canon 九部, 九部經

nine divisions of the great vehicle teaching 大乘教九部

nine divisions of the meaning 九轍

nine elements (of the Vaiśeṣikas) 九陰

nine eons 九劫

nine evolutions 九心輪

nine examples 九句因

nine existences 九有

nine expedient methods 九方便

nine fallacies in the proposition 宗九過

nine fallacies in the pseudo-proposition 似宗九過

nine forms of Amitābha 九品彌陀

nine forms of complete awareness 九徧知

nine forms of pride 九慢

nine grades of affliction 九品煩惱

nine grades of the great robe 九品大衣

nine grades of the Pure Land 九品安養, 九品淨刹, 九品淨土

nine graduated concentrations 九次第定

nine groups (of disciples) 九衆

nine heavens 九梵

nine honored ones 九尊

nine kinds of affliction 九品惑

nine kinds of birth 九類生

nine kinds of delusion 九上緣惑, 九惑

nine kinds of ghosts 九鬼

nine kinds of irregular death 九橫死

nine kinds of karma 九業

nine kinds of Mahāyāna meditation 九種大禪

nine kinds of meditation (on a corpse to quell desire) 九想, 九想觀

nine leakages 九漏

nine levels 九品

nine levels of existence 九地

nine levels of lotus seats 九品蓮臺

nine levels of nine classed of delusion 九地九品思惑

nine lotus stands 九蓮

nine luminaries 九曜

nine marks 九相

nine marshes 九皐

nine mountains 九山

nine mountains and eight seas 九山八海

nine orifices 九入, 九孔, 九瘡, 九竅

nine part canon 九經

nine paths 九道

nine paths of liberation 九解脫道

nine patriarch lineage 九祖相承

nine patriarchs 九祖

nine patriarchs of Tiantai 天台九神

nine penetrations 九徹

nine pitfalls 九厄

nine post-learners 九無學

nine postures 九儀

nine realms 九域, 九界

nine realms of retribution of passions 九界情執

nine schools of Korean Seon 九山禪門

nine sects 九宗

nine stages of meditation 九住心

nine states of bondage and the one state of liberation 九縛一脫

nine teaching assemblies 九會說

nine time periods 九世

nine track dharma master 九轍法師

nine tropes 九喩

nine truths 九道

nine uninterrupted paths 九無間道

nine unobstructed paths 九無礙道, 九無間道

nine upholders 九執

nine vexations 九惱, 九橫, 九罪報

nine wheels 九輪

nine words 九字

nine worlds 九世間

nine years facing the wall 九年面壁

nine yogas 九瑜伽, 九種瑜伽

ninefold future life 九品往生

ninety offenses requiring expiation 九十單墮, 九十單提

ninety prāyaścittikāḥ 九十波逸提

ninety-eight 九十八

ninety-eight latent afflictions 九十八隨眠

ninety-eight proclivities 九十八使

ninety-six 九十六

ninety-six arts 九十六術

ninety-six kinds of non-Buddhist philosophy 九十六種外道

ninety-two offenses requiring expatiation fruits and sweetmeats 單墮九十二事法

ninth 第九

ninth class 第九品

ninth consciousness 九識

ninth rank of the patch-robe 九條衣, 九條袈裟

nirvāṇa of abiding in neither saṃsāra nor nirvāṇa 無住處涅槃

nirvāṇa of no abiding 不住涅槃

nirvāṇa of no-abiding 無住處涅槃

nirvāna with remainder 有餘依涅槃, 有餘涅槃

nirvāṇa without abiding 無住涅槃

nirvāṇa without basis 無依涅槃

nirvāṇa without remainder 無餘依涅槃, 無餘涅槃, 無餘湼槃

nirvāṇa without subject 無依湼槃

no abandonment 無退捨

no appropriation 無受, 無執

no barrier 無關

no beginning or end 無始終

no binding 無縛

no buddha 無佛

no buddha-nature 無佛性

no cessation 無止息, 阿那律

no charity 無施

no compassion 無悲

no consciousness 無識

no contradiction 無相違

no craving 無貧

no delusion 無妄, 無癡

no difference 無差

no difference between word an meaning 名義不離

no difficulty 無難

no diminution 無減少

no discrimination 無別

no discrimination of the characteristics of the container world 無分別器相

no discrimination of the container world 無分別器

no distortion 無亂倒

no doubt about killing 不疑殺

no dualistic explanation 無二說

no effort 無功

no essence 無體

no establishment of words and letters 不立文字

no evil 無惡

no expectation 無所悕

no expectation(s) 無所悕望

no experiencer 無受者

no extinction 無斷盡

no faith 不信, 無信

no false conceptualization 無妄想

no faltering 無怯

no fear of death 無死畏

no fear of not being able to earn a living 無不活畏

no fears 無諸怖畏

no forgetfulness 無忘失法

no forgetting 無忘失

no heat 無熱

no idleness 無懈退

no impediment in regard to the dharma 法無礙

no injury 無損

no law of cause and effect 無因果

no laxity 不放逸, 無緩

no liberation 無脫, 無解脫

no marks of form 無色相

no moment of thought can be apprehended 念念不可得

no more birth and death 無後生死

no obstruction 無梗澀, 無滯

no obstruction among the six elements 六大無礙

no obstruction between composition and decomposition 成壞無礙

no obstruction between concealment and disclosure 隱顯無礙

no obstruction between essence and function 體用無礙

no obstruction between manifest phenomena 情事無礙

no obstruction between principle and phenomena 理事無礙

no obstruction between subject and object 主伴無礙

no obstruction in multiple manifestations 重現無礙

no obstruction in mutual entry 相入無礙

no obstruction in mutual identity 相卽無礙

no obstruction in time and place 時處無礙

no obstruction of meaning 義無礙

no one to teach 無所化

no path 無道

no phenomena 無事

no place 無處

no place that it does not reach 無所不遍

no place to abide 無所住

no pride in spiritual superiority 無增上慢

no principle 無理

no prior or subsequent 無前後

no protection 無有救護

no quality 無德

no refuge 無所歸依

no religious ceremonies 無祠祀

no removal 無捨

no room 無容

no self-nature 無性

no sentient being(s) 無衆生

no sexual excessiveness 不婬

no spaces between his teeth 其齒無隙

no spaces between the teeth 齒無隙

no special place 無方

no spiritual essence 無神我

no stinginess 無慳

no such coming into existence 無等生起

no such fallacy 無此過

no suffering 無苦

no suffering and distress 無艱難

no taking part in, or watching, singing, dancing, or plays 不歌舞倡伎不往觀聽

no teaching 無教

no thing 無物

no turning back 無退轉

no violation or retrogression 無毀犯退屈

no wisdom 無惠, 無慧

noble , 妙聖, , 阿梨耶, 阿犁耶, 阿離耶

noble eightfold path 八聖道

noble one 聖者

noble truth of the arising of suffering 集聖諦

noble wisdom 妙聖智

no-enmity 無瞋

no-evil vehicle 不惡乘

nominal Chan 口頭禪

non existent 無法

non- harmonization 不和合性

non-abiding 無住

non-acquisition prior to the mental factor 法前非得

non-acquisition subsequent to the mental factor 法後非得

non-analytical cessation 非擇滅無爲

non-apparent form 假色

non-application 不作行

non-arising 無有生, 無起

non-backsliding 不退

non-backsliding bodhisattva 不退菩薩

non-backsliding in terms of accordant practice 行不退

non-backsliding in terms of faith 信不退

non-backsliding in terms of mindfulness 念不退, 證不退

non-buddha 非佛

non-Buddhist 外道

non-Buddhist doctrines 外法

non-Buddhist meditation 外道禪

non-Buddhist studies 外學

non-Buddhists who eschew cultivation 不修外道

non-canonical, yet admissible interpretation 容有說, 容有釋

non-causation and mistakenly understood causation 無因惡因

nonconceptual heaven 無想天

nonconceptual wisdom 無念智

non-contradictory causes 不相違因

non-decay 無壞

non-deception 不誑

non-decreasing 不減

non-deviant 無邪

non-difference between enlightenment in the nature of sentient beings 衆生無差別

non-difference between the minds of buddhas and sentient beings 心無差別

non-difference of impurity and purity in thusness 無染淨眞如

non-differentiation 無遮

non-discriminated equality 無遮平等

non-discriminating cognition 無分別智

nondiscriminating insight 無分別慧

non-discriminating markless mind 無分別無相之心

non-discursively imagined character of existence 無覺分別相

non-distinction between buddhas 佛無差別

non-duality 不二, 無二

non-empty tathāgatagarbha 不空如來藏

non-empty thusness 不空眞如

non-enlightenment 不覺

non-eternal 不常住

non-excessive activity 無越作用


non-existence of a enduring self 補特伽羅無我

nonexistence of cause 無因

nonexistence of hatred 無怨


non-falsity 不虛

non-injury 不害

non-karmic 無業, 無業用

non-metaphorical 無譬, 無譬喻

non-nature of ultimate reality 勝義無性

non-necessary manifesation 不須現

non-obstructed morally indeterminate mental states 無覆無記心

non-obstruction between individual phenomena 事事無礙

non-parsimony 不慳

non-production of afflictions 不生雜染

non-productivity 無生性

non-propelling activity 不動業, 不動行

non-recitation of the precepts 不誦戒

non-retrogressing bodhisattvas 阿毘跋致菩薩

non-retrogression 不退, 不退轉, 阿惟越政, 阿惟越致地, 阿鞞跋致

non-retrogression in terms of level attained 位不退

non-returner 不來, 不廻, 不還, 阿那含

non-sentient 無情

non-separation of the mind and its functions 心行不離

non-substantial hypothesis 無體隨情假

non-substantiality 無有性

non-suffering 不苦

non-training 不修治

non-violation of precepts 不犯

non-worldlings 非異生


noon offering 午供


northern Buddhism 北方佛教

northern continent 北拘盧洲

northern direction 北方

northern pillow 北枕

Northern Qí dynasty 北齊

northern school 北宗

northern tradition 北道


nose and tongue 鼻舌

nose, tongue, and body 鼻舌身

noseless meditation master 鼻隔禪師

no-self 無我

no-strife concentration 無諍三昧


not a fully explained teaching 不了義說

not a sentient being 非衆生

not a single person 無一人

not a single thing 無一物

not a son of the Buddha 非佛子

not abandoning birth and death 不捨離生死

not abiding in form 不住色

not able to fully... 不能究竟

not absolutely true 非眞諦

not accepting food after having risen from one's seat 先止後食

not afflicting 不惱

not afflicting others 不惱於他

not again 不復, 不更

not along with afflictions 不與煩惱

not applicable to 不向

not appropriating 不受

not as good as this 不如是

not assented to 不許

not associated with 不應

not at all 全未

not become a buddha 未成佛

not being so is not held to 不恁麼也不得

not believing in 不信重

not bending over 不低, 不低下

not blazing 無熾

not called 不名

not called... 不名爲

not carried out 非行

not carrying out punishments 不行黜罰

not coming to greet 不來迎

not complete 非究竟

not completely 不畢竟

not completely fettered; partially fettered 不具縛

not comprehending 不了

not concomitant 非相應

not concomitant with 不相應

not concomitant with mind 心不相應

not conditioned 非有爲

not confused 無亂, 無癡亂

not consummated 不成實

not contingent 不緣

not contradictory 不乖

not covered 無蓋

not coveting 無貪

not cultivating; not practicing 不修習

not cut off 不絕

not deceiving 不行虛誑

not delighting in 不愛樂

not despising 不輕

not different 不異

not different from 無異

not different from emptiness 不異空

not differing 不違

not differing from 不殊

not difficult 不難

not discarding 不棄, 不棄捨

not discriminating differences 無異分別

not disputing about existence or non-existence 不爭有無

not distracted 不流散

not done 不遂

not easy 不易

not easy to count 不易可數

not empty 不空

not engaging in licentious sexual behavior 不婬慾

not engaging in trivial chit-chat 不綺語

not enjoying 不喜, 不樂

not expecting 不待, 不悕, 不悕望

not expressed verbally 非說

not failing to take a superior rebirth 無倒勝生道

not falling into evil rebirths 不墮惡道

not falling into partiality 不墮偏黨

not falling under the law of cause and effect 不落因果

not false 非虛

not finished 阿娑摩補多

not firmly (rigidly) attached 不堅執

not first, nor middle or last 非初非中後

not forgetting 不忘, 無忘

not forming 無成

not fully comprehended 未通達

not gentle 不柔和

not getting irritated 不生憤, 不生憤發

not given 不與

not giving rise to afflictions 不生煩惱

not going forth 不往

not grasped 無攝

not grasping to the role of teacher (?) 不作師捲

not guarding 不護

not guilty 無罪

not harsh 無諸獷悷

not having any differences 無有異

not held in common with direct disciples 不共聲聞

not ignoring the law of cause and effect 不昧因果

not immediately 不頓

not in order of age 不臈次, 不臘次

not in vain 不空過

not inauthentic 無虛

not included 不攝

not indifferent 不離欲

not investigating well 不善觀

not killing 不煞

not lasting 不正安住

not leaving 不出

not long 不久

not long before visiting the site of enlightenment 不久詣道場

not lying 不妄語

not merely empty 不但空

not momentary 非刹那

not mundane 無俗

not mutually conflicting 互不相違

not necessary 不須

not obscured 不昧

not obstructing 不遮

not one 不一, 無一

not own-nature 非自性

not paying homage 不拜

not pervading 不遍

not practicing 不修

not prior 非先

not produced from causes and conditions 不從因緣生

not really existing 非實有

not reborn 不更生

not reborn into the Pure Land 不往生

not rejecting 不捨

not relying 不依

not relying on sentient beings 無依有情

not requested 不請

not resenting 無爲逆行

not retrogressing 不退還

not sad 不憂

not saying a single word 一字不說

not seeking 不求

not sensing all phenomena 不受一切法

not separate from the body 不離身

not sharing the same basis with the world 不共世間

not showed 不可示

not skillful means 非方便

not so; (or, at the end of a sentence:) is it not so? 不爾

not speaking divisively 不兩舌

not speaking harshly 不惡口

not subsequent 非後

not substantial 無厚

not terminated 不究竟

not the buddha's teaching 非佛說

not the same 不同

not thinking 不思量, 非思量

not thus 非如

not to be clung to 不應貪著

not to mention

not to possess uncoined or coined gold and silver, or jewels 不捉持生像金銀寶物

not to sit on a high, broad, large bed 不坐高廣大牀

not to slander 不重舌

not together with 不倶

not treated with disrespect 不輕陵

not two 非二

not two realms 無二際

not understanding 不解

not using 不用

not using swords and staves 不用刀杖

not without 不無

not yet achieved fruition 未至果

not yet free from desire 未離欲

not yet removed 未離

not, is not 不是

nothing besides this 除此無

nothing but 無非

nothing but non-existence 唯無

nothing but the manifestation of consciousness 唯識所現

nothing but the transformations of consciousness 唯識所變

nothing else to attain 無別可得

nothing is produced by itself 不自生

nothing is produced from other things 不他生

nothing is produced of itself or both other things 不共生

nothing is produced without cause 不無因生

nothing missing and nothing in excess 無缺無餘

nothing superfluous and nothing to be added 無有若過若增

nothing to appropriate 無所執

nothing to be attained 無所得

nothing to lose 無有失, 無有失壞

nothing to see 無所見

nothing to teach 無所說

nothingness 虛無

notion of the pleasurable 樂想

not-nature 非性

not-two 不二


nourishing or strengthening cause 養因

nourishment from thought 念食

novice monk 求寂, 沙彌

novice nun 沙尼, 沙彌尼

now 今時

now exists 今有

nowhere it does not reach 無所不至

number of grains of sand 沙數

number of grains of sand in the Ganges river 河沙數

number of years after ordination 年戒

numberless eons 無央數劫

numerous phenomena 多法

nun 乞士女, 女僧, 女德, , 比丘尼, 法尼, 苾芻尼, 除女


obeisance 伴題, 和南, 煩淡

obfuscate 覆弊

object , , 爲境界

object as conditioning factor 緣緣

object of knowledge 義識

object-contingent mental factors 別境

objective aspect 相分

objective images 緣影

objective indifferentiation of thusness 法無別眞如

objective realm of the mind 心境界

objective realm of unenlightened people 凡夫境界

objective realms 塵境界

objects of perception 所緣

objects of the five sense organs 五塵

objects of the mind which are included as material 法處色

objects that are conditions 緣塵

objects that are visible and materially obstructive 可見有對色

objects(s) 事義

obscurations due to affliction 煩惱障

obscured indeterminacy 有覆無記性

obscures cognition 障智

obscures thought 闇昧心

observances of the day of the winter solstice 冬齋

observation of inferiors 下輩觀

observation of mindfulness of the buddha 念佛觀

observation of the real principle that allows one to be aware of the perfect interfusion of the three truths of voidness, provisionality and the mean simultaneously 三諦圓融觀

observe/analyze with insight 以慧觀察

observed object and observing subject 緣觀

observes well 善觀

observing dharmas as empty 法空觀

observing emptiness 空觀

obstruct 三嚩, 三婆, 三跋羅,

obstruction 吒婆

obstruction and affliction 障礙雜染

obtain a prediction for future buddhahood 獲得授記

obtain benefits 得益

obtain Buddhist cultural articles 請來

obtain re-birth 得生

obtain sovereignty (unimpededness) 獲得自在

obtain the marrow 得髓

obtainable or not 得不

obtains omnipotence (sovereignty) 得自在

obvious example 現喩

occupations based on worldly mechanical skills 世間工巧業

occupations including the practical arts 工巧業處

occurrences of affliction 煩惱事

occurring 現行

occurring immediately (?) 現來

ocean 三慕達羅, 三母捺羅娑誐羅, 大海, 海水

ocean hard to cross 難度海

ocean of affliction 煩惱海

ocean of consciousness 識海

ocean of faith 信海

ocean of mortality 生死海

ocean of the thusness of the dharma-nature 法性眞如海

ocean of virtue 德海

ocean seal samādhi 海印三昧

ocean-like mind of great faith 大信心海

odor 伽羅尼, 香境

odor and taste 香味

odors 香臭


of such a form or kind 如是如實

offender 損者

offenses requiring expiation 單墮

offer ,

offer to Buddha 供佛

offer up 上供,

offered song 特欹拏伽陀

offering box 福田函

offering food to the temple 齋會

offering of a meal to the Buddha 佛飯

offering of the three karmic activities 三業相應

offering through verbal action 口業供養

offering to spirits at the river 川施餓鬼

offering to the humane king 仁王供

offering with three activities 三業供養

offerings 供具, 供物

offerings and faith 檀信

offerings between 9-11 am 巳時供養, 巳時摩旨

offerings of flowers and incense 香華供養

offerings of food 餉供

offerings of food to the triratna

offerings of the dharma 法供養

offerings of the five families 五家所共

offerings to the Mahāparinirvāṇa-sūtra

offerings to those who have escaped from the toils, e.g. Buddhas 出纏供養

office building

office of hell 冥府

officer of the hells of the five destinies 五道冥官

officials of hell 冥官


old age and sickness 老病

old treatise 古論

old woman

olfactory consciousness 鼻識

olfactory faculty 鼻根

omnipotent 無所不能

omnipresent 徧一切處

omnipresent mental functions 遍行心所

omniscience 一切敏, 一切智, 一切智慧, 一切智智, 一切智相, 徧智

omniscient mind 一切相智

omniscient one 一切智者

on the spot (?) 一座上

on the spot 座上

onanism 故出精

once again 二往, 再往

once it has already arisen occurred, happened 旣得生已

once the fish is caught, forget about the trap 得魚忘筌

once you have... 汝旣

once you know this... 如是知已

once-returner 一來, 斯陀含

one ,

one age 一代

one and the same enlightenment 同一覺

one approach includes all approaches 一門普門

one aspect of the sequence 一門次第

one being recognized mean then all is of the mean 一中一切中

one billion worlds 三千大千世界

one breath at half a step 一息半步

one buddha 一佛

one buddha land 一佛土

one Buddha or many Buddhas 一佛多佛

one Buddha's Pure Land 一佛淨土

one burning of incense 一炷

one butt 一觸

one by one 一一

one character and one taste 一相一味

one consciousness 一識

one contemplation 一觀

one corner 一隅

one day transcribing of a sūtra 一日經

one demon a myriad arrows 一魔萬箭

one dhāraṇī 一明

one does not accurately understand that ... 不如實知

one drop 一渧

one essence for three treasures 一體三寶

one four phrase verse 一四句

one four-line verse 一四句頌

one great tripiṭaka 一大藏教

one great vehicle 一大車

one hand 一手

one heap (mass, group, pile, etc.) 一聚

one hundred and eight beads 百八珠

one hundred elements (dharmas) 唯識百法

one hundred kinds of behavior 百衆學法

one hundred lecture sites 百座道場

one hundred negations 百非

one hundred proper behaviors for monks and nuns 百衆學戒

one hundred proper modes of behavior for monks and nuns 百衆學

one hundred seats 百座

one hundred thousand 十萬

one hundred twenty-eight fundamental afflictions 百二十八根本煩惱

one interruption 一間, 翳迦鼻至迦

one is (or includes) three 一卽三

one is all 一卽一切

one is all and all is one 一卽一切一切卽一

one is ten 一卽十

one leaf Avalokitêśvara 一葉觀音

one life's teachings 一化

one lotus 一蓮

one lotus bearing all the living 一蓮托生, 一蓮託生

one manifestation 一轉

one man's untruth is propagated by a myriad men as truth 一人作虛萬人傳實

one mark implies no marks 一相無相

one mass 一團

one meal a day 一食

one meeting 一會

one middle way 一中

one mind 一心

one mind and three aspects of knowledge 一心三智

one moon and three boats 一月三舟

one moon, three bodies 一月三身

one night (stopover, lodging) 一宿

one of the seven wives (?) 玉耶

one period 一期

one phenomenon 一法

one phrase of the teaching 一句法

one pillar gate 一柱門

one pointed concentration 一三昧

one practice includes all practices 一行一切行

one principle 一理

one question to check 一拶

one realm 一境

one recollection (or recitation) of the Buddha's name 一念稱名

one school 一宗

one side 一方

one sided attachment to ultimate reality 偏眞

one summer retreat 一夏

one taste Chan 一味禪

one teaching 一教

one thing 一義

one thought not arising 一念不生

one thought-moment 一心刹那

one thought-moment of correct enlightenment 正覺一念

one time 一時

one topknot Mañjuśrī 一髻文殊

one topknot rakṣa-king bodhisattva 一髻羅刹王菩薩

one touch with its horn 牛角一觸

one true mark 一實相

one true realm 一實境界

one true realm of reality 一眞法界

one true unconditioned 一眞無爲

one type of perceptual referent 一類緣境

one ultimate 一極

one unobstructed path 一無礙道

one vehicle ocean 一乘海

one vehicle teaching 一乘教

one wave following another (what is this?) 隨波逐浪

one way 一道

one who accords with righteousness 隨順義人

one who attains liberation in between 中般涅槃

one who engages in the same pure practices 同梵行

one who has fully consummated the stage of the once-returner 一來果

one who has seen the truth(s) 已見諦者

one who has understood 已解了者

one who indulges in objects of desire 受欲塵者

one who is content with lesser vehicle teachings 樂小法者

one who is entering onto the stage of the once-returner 一來向

one who is free from desire 已離欲人, 已離欲者

one who proposes solutions 竪者

one who receives and memorizes the Sūtras 受持者

one word 一字, 一言

one yojana 一由旬

one-colored robe 平袈裟

one-eyed tortoise 一眼之龜

one-finger Chan 一指頭禪

one-letter golden wheel 一字金輪

one-nature schools 一性宗

oneness 一如

one-part school 一分家

one-pointed concentration without scattering 一心不亂

one-practice absorption 一行三昧

one's essential nature 己性

one's mind is busy with one's worldly occupation 心營世務

one's neighboring monks 隣單

one's own child(ren) 己子

one's own house 己舍宅

one's own mind 己心

one's own name 我名

one's own thesis 自悉彈多

one's own virtue 己德

one's spiritual abilities and the dharma accesses are not two 機法不二

one's type of birth 如是生

oneself 己身

one-sided preference for philosophical negation 起損減執

one-vehicle adherent 一乘人

one-voice teaching 一音教

one-word Chan 一字禪

only 但是,

only after... 而後

only associated with enlightenment 唯證相應

only conditions not causes 唯緣

only consciousness and no external objects 唯識無境

only consciousness exists 唯有識

only discriminated 唯分別

only empty 但空

only except for... 唯除

only form 唯色

only formless 唯無色性

only objects, no consciousness 唯境無識

only one 唯一

only one abode 唯一住

only one great matter 唯一大事

only pure 一向淨

only removes afflictions 唯除煩惱

only says... 但言

only sitting and not lying down 但坐不臥

only suffering 一向苦

only the tathāgatas are able to understand 唯如來能知

only this (?) 唯有爾所

only unwholesome 唯不善

open hand

opening the provisional to disclose the real 開權示實

opening with the provisional 開權

opens the gate 開門

operate in mental states of all three karmic moral qualities 通三性心

operative cause of re-birth into the Pure Land 作生因

opinion 見解

opportune and suitable 機宜

opportune words 機語

opposing 不順

opposition 上煩

oral activity 口業

oral reading of the scriptures 讀誦

oral transmission 口授, 口決

oral transmission of the buddhadharma 口傳

ordinary (unenlightened) person 凡夫人

ordinary 家常, 尋常, 日常, 日用

ordinary anxieties 凡慮

ordinary consciousness 凡識

ordinary man and sage 凡聖

ordinary merit 凡福

ordinary mind 凡夫心, 凡心

ordinary monk 凡僧

ordinary passions 凡情

ordinary people 諸異生

ordinary person 凡人, 異生

ordinary practices 凡習

ordinary sentient beings 凡異生

ordinary suffering 世俗苦

ordinary teachers 凡師

ordinary type 凡種

ordinary unenlightened people 凡小

ordinary unenlightened person 凡夫異生

ordinary unenlightened sentient beings 凡夫衆生

ordination 作法得, 作羯磨得, 進具

ordination ceremony 受戒儀式

ordination name 戒名

orient one's attention to impurity 作意思惟不淨

origin of the teaching 化源


original Buddhahood is the only illumination 天眞獨朗

original cause 元因, 原因

original enlightenment, innate enlightenment 本覺

original essence of all being 法性

original face 本來面目, 本地風光

original luminosity 元明

original mind 元心, 本來本心

original nature 本性

original nature of sentient beings 衆生本性

original nature of the reality-realm 法界性

original purity 自性淸淨

original share 本分

original share master 本分宗師

original share person 本分人

original star 元神星, 元辰星

original vow arising from great compassion 大悲本願

originally 先來

originally enlightened mind that is tending toward defilement 隨染本覺

originally established 本立

originally possessed by all people 人人本具

originally pure 本來淸淨

originally unborn essential nature 本來無生法性

ossuary 納骨堂, 骨堂


other beings 他有情

other dharmas 餘法

other lands 他方

other masters 餘師

other matters 他事

other object s 他境

other persons 他身

other power teaching 他力宗

other practices 餘行

other scriptures 餘經

other shore 彼岸

other teachings 他說, 他說法

other vehicle 異乘

other vehicles 餘乘

other worlds 餘世

other-dependent 依他

other-dependent in nature 依他性

other-dependent nature 依他自性

other-power 他力

others of such type 所餘等

our child(ren) 吾子

outcaste 賤人

outer ocean 外海

outer robe 上著衣, 鬱多羅僧伽, 鬱多羅僧衣

outer wisdom 外智

outflow of ignorance 無明漏

outline verse 嗢拖南

outlined like this 如是略說

outside the cave 窟外

outstanding 出隊

outstanding intelligence 忍俊

overcome by specific sin 他勝罪

overcoming doubt 度疑

overnight 一朝

overturning cognition that follows from non-discriminating cognition 隨無分別智轉智

overturning cognition that follows from the three cognitions. 隨三智轉智

overturning cognition that follows the cognitions of those who are self-masters 隨自在者智轉智

overturning condition that follows from observation and investigation 隨觀察者轉智

overturning delusion is none other than the real 翻妄卽眞

overturns the proposition 倒立

oviparous 卵生


own effect 自果

own-nature of expressions 言說自性

ox ,

ox cart 牛車

ox head 牛頭

ox horns 牛角

ox-head sandalwood 牛檀栴檀, 牛檀香, 牛頭栴檀

ox-head torturers (?) 不群

ox-hide 牛皮

pagoda 柱塔

pagoda of dharma body relics 法身舍利塔

pagoda with the Buddha's relics 生身舍利塔


palace eunuch 犍黃門

palace of Maheśvara 大自在宮

palace of the luminous mind 光明心殿

palace of the wonderful Law 妙法宮

palace temples 內寺

Pali language 巴利語


paper flowers 紙華, 素華

paper money 陰錢

parable 譬喩

parable of the burning house 火宅喩

parable of the conjured city 化城喩

parable of the excellent physician and his sick children 醫子喩

parable of the gem in the robe 衣珠喩

parable of the priceless gem in the topknot 髻珠喩

parable of the three kinds of medicinal herbs 藥草喩

parable of the wealthy man and the prodigal son 窮子喩

paradise 樂土, 樂邦

paradise hall 極樂殿

pārijāta tree 天樹王

parishioner 檀家

park of the sages 仙人鹿園, 仙苑


partial 一分

partial and complete 偏圓

partial and inferior 偏小

partial blindness 翳障

partial bodhisattva 一分菩薩

partial eunuchs 博叉半擇迦, 博叉般荼迦

partial modified and complete Buddhist teachings 半滿

partial teaching 偏教

partial teaching of the one vehicle 一乘分教

partial teachings and complete teachings 半滿教

partially blind

particle 一個半個

particle of dust 一微塵

particularizing karma 滿業, 生業

pass through the world 度世

past 過去

past activities 過去業, 過去行

past and future phenomena 去來法

past and present 古今

past life image 本生圖

past mind is unobtainable 過去心不可得

past, future, present 去來今

past, present and future 過現未


patched-robe monk 衲僧

patch-robe monk or nun 衲子

path aimed for extinction 一向趣寂

path of accumulation 資糧道

path of affliction 煩惱道

path of difficult practice 難行道

path of direct cutting 徑截門

path of equality of the karmic agents 三摩耶道

path of expedient means 方便道

path of freedom from desire 離欲之道

path of initial application 加行道

path of insight 見道

path of language 言語道

path of liberation 解脫道

path of meditative cultivation 修道

path of no interruption 無間道

path of no obstruction 無間道

path of overcoming of afflictions 治道

path of superb advancement 勝進道

path of the non-returner 阿那含道

path of unwholesome activity 不善業道

patience 忍辱, 羼提波羅蜜多

patience and wisdom 忍智

patience as armor 忍辱鎧, 忍鎧

patience based on the realization of the non-arising of phenomena 不起法忍, 無起法忍

patience of joy 喜忍

patience of not retaliating against someone who harms you 耐他怨害忍

patience towards all sentient beings under all circumstances 衆生忍

patient cultivation of goodness 忍善

patient like water 忍水

patiently harmonizing 忍調

patrol the hall 巡堂

pavilion of the mind 心亭

pay homage to 頂禮

paying attention to the ugly (impure) 不淨作意

paying homage to the king 向國王禮拜

peaceful dwelling 安居

peak meditation 頂禪

peak of the great wheel-turning buddhas 大轉輪佛頂

pearl , 眞珠

pearl in the garment 衣寳, 衣珠

pearl of faith 信珠

pearl of the single vehicle 一乘之珠

pearly moon 珂月


peerless cognition 無上智

peerless correct perfect enlightenment 無上正等菩提, 無上正等覺

peerless correct true enlightenment 無上正眞道

peerless great vehicle teaching 大乘無上法

peerless possessor of the ten powers 十力無等

peerless vehicle 無上乘, 無等乘



penetrating intelligence 通敏

penetrating meditation 了徹禪定

penetrating mind 通達心

people 人人, 人等倫

people of the world 世人

perceive 了別

perceive objects 了別境

perceived phenomena 想事

perceives phenomena such as form (sound, odor, etc.) 色等想事

perceiving that the five aggregates are empty in their own-nature 照見五蘊皆空

perception 了別, 想蘊

perception of inner appropriation 了別內執受

perception of pure and attractive objects 緣淨妙可意事境

perceptions of form and so forth 色等想

perceptual referent 所緣

percussion instruments used for chanting 唄器


perfect bliss 究竟樂

perfect dharma-body 究竟法身

perfect enlightenment 三那三佛, 圓覺, 等覺

perfect enlightenment long acquired 久成正覺

perfect extinction 永盡究竟涅槃

perfect in appearance 形色具足

perfect interpenetration of the reality realm 法界圓融

perfect mental clarity 妙淨信心

perfect purity 徧淨

perfect quiescence 最上涅槃

perfect reliability in what one says 信言具足

perfect teacher 大師圓滿

perfect transmission of the single taste 一味瀉甁

perfect understanding of past, present, and future 三世智

perfect vehicle of the single reality 一實圓乘

perfect voice 圓音

perfection of bodily characteristics 具足相

perfection of concentration 禪到彼岸

perfection of expedient means 方便到彼岸

perfection of faith 信成就

perfection of forbearance 忍到彼岸, 忍波羅蜜多

perfection of generosity 布施波羅蜜

perfection of giving 施到彼岸, 檀度, 檀波羅蜜

perfection of joy 樂波羅蜜

perfection of morality 戒到彼岸

perfection of omniscience 智到彼岸

perfection of powers 力到彼岸

perfection of the vow 願到彼岸

perfection of wisdom 般若到彼岸

perfections assembly 彼岸會

perfectly accomplished nature of reality 圓成實性

perfectly and fully enlightened buddha 三藐三佛陀

perfectly clean 妙淨

perfectly clear 了了

perfectly complete 徧成

perfectly correct 全正

perfectly penetrating vision 了了見

perfectly steadfastness 具足安住

perfectly unconditioned 究竟無爲

perfectly unobstructed 一切無障礙

perfectly-formed body of the Buddha 具足色身

perform all buddha-works 作一切佛事

performance 行緣

perfumable 可熏

perfume 熏習,

perfume eater 食香

perfume spirit 香神

perfumed by speech 言熏

perfumes 能熏

perfuming by ignorance 無明熏習

perfuming from hearing the correct 正聞熏習

perfuming from speech 言熏習

perfuming of seeds 熏種, 熏習種子


perilous castle 危城

period between two buddhas 二佛中門

period of going forth 出期

period of the increase of the five pollutions 五濁增時

period of the semblance dharma 像運

perish and be reborn 沒生

perish together 倶滅

permanent elimination of seeds 種子永斷

permanently disables latencies 永害隨眠

permanently done away with 永滅離

permanently eliminate all afflictions 永斷一切煩惱

permanently eliminates karmic impressions 永斷習氣

permanently extinguished without remainder 無餘永滅

permanently liberated 永解脫

permanently sever 永絕

permeate the mind 熏修心

permeation by the power of the dharma 法力熏習

permeation of the deluded mind 妄心熏習

permeation of the erroneously conceived objects of the senses and the mind 妄境界熏習

perpetual eon of millions of years 兆載永劫


person 一人, 人身

person and dharma 人法

person in charge of making offerings 供養主

person in the desire realm 欲界人

person of low social status 下賤人

person of omniscience 一切智人

person of the Way who is without thoughts 無心道人

person who has burnt the seeds of the possibility of awakening 焦種

person who is free of desire 離欲人

person who rides 能乘人

person(s) 士夫補特伽羅

personal advantage 己利

personal belongings of each monk or nun 現前現前, 現前現前物

personal enjoyment body 自受用身

personal identity 個我性, 補伽羅

personal property 有主物

personal realization through the elimination of afflictions 於斷作證

person's hand 人手

perspective of the three natures 三性對望

pervade 具分

pervasive and specific hindrances 通別障

pervasive hindrances 通障

pervasively connected 通緣

pervasively discriminated 遍計所執

pervasively fathom 徧探

pervasively imagined phenomena 偏計所執法

pervasively refute 徧破

perverse mind 心鬼

perverted discipline 不律儀, 非律儀


pheasant which busied itself in putting out the forest on fire and was pitied and saved by the fire-god 雉救林火

phenomena (dharmas) are devoid of an inherent nature 法無我

phenomena (dharmas) not associated with mind (or matter) 不相應行

phenomena and functions 事用

phenomena and principle 事理

phenomena are no different from reality 卽事而眞

phenomena that really exist 實有法

phenomenal activities 事造

phenomenal buddha 事佛

phenomenal consciousness 事識

phenomenal existence 有事

phenomenal fire 事火

phenomenal hindrances 事障

phenomenon 現象

phrase 一句

physical body and the spiritual body of the Buddha 生法二身

physical existence of a living being 有身

physically tormented 逼迫身

pick, pinch


pierced-ear monks 穿耳僧

pig-headed monk 猪頭和尚


pissing ghost 尿牀鬼子

pitch-black night 陰闇夜

pitcher 君遲

pitiable 可哀愍

place 如是處

place of enlightenment 道場

place of immortality 不死處

place offerings on the altar 上祭, 下祭

planting-seed causes 種殖因


Platform Sūtra of the Dharma Treasure 法寶壇經

play of the Tathāgata 如來舞

play with

pleasing effects 可愛之果

pleasing speech 美語

pleasing things 樂事

pleasure 快意

pleasure only 一向樂

pliable jade 玉柔

pliancy (?) 伏意

pliancy (flexibility, gentleness) of the mind 心調柔

pliancy 輕安

pliant , 柔輭, 調柔


poetic verse , 偈他

point to the moon 標月

poison 蠱毒

policy of oppressing Buddhism and encouraging worshipping Confucianism 排佛崇儒政策

polish one's abilities 練根

polite and respectful behavior 修和敬業


pollution from evil activity 罪垢

polytheism 多神教

pomegranate 子滿果

pool of blood 血汚池

posited differently according to the level 依位別立

positing statement 表詮

positive or open exposition 表銓

posits continuity 建立流轉

posits extinction 建立還滅

possessed of the eye of the buddhas 具眼

possessing consciousness 有識

possessing goodness 有善

possessing intelligence 具足聰慧

possessing jewels 有寶

possessing mind 有心

possessing undeclining aspiration 志欲無退

possessing undeclining memory 無忘失念

possessor of latent hindrances 有隨眠者

post-learner liberation 無學解脫

post-learning arhats 無學聖人

potency 勢用

potentiality and response 機應

potter's wheel 陶家輪


powder 諄那


power of attention 作意力

power of cultivation 修力

power of faith 信力

power of great sages 大聖力

power of ignorance 無明力

power of illusion 幻力

power of inconceivable manifestation 化神力

power of individual merit 我功德力

power of longevity 命自在

power of perfuming 熏力

power of practice and performance 修習力

power of stable abiding meditation 奢摩他力

power of the divine eye 天眼力

power of the noble paths 聖道勢力

power of ubiquity 如意足

power ofgreat tolerance 大忍力

power to teach and guide 化導力

powerful 強盛

powerful delusion 猛利癡

powers and fearlessness 力無畏

powers of the six faculties 六根功德

practice 修業

practice according to faith 隨信行

practice according to the teachings 隨法行

practice and realization 行證

practice and vow 行願

practice and vow of Samantabhadra 普賢行願

practice continuously 修習相續

practice is the feet 行足

practice meditation 習禪

practice of acceptance of retribution of enmity 報冤行, 報怨行

practice of clear observation 修觀

practice of contemplating the provisional truth 安立諦作意門

practice of contemplation appropriate to the vehicle of the direct disciples 聲聞乘相應作意修

practice of forest-dwelling 阿蘭若行

practice of freedom from sensory pleasures and scrutiny of reality 離諸愛味簡擇諦行

practice of good deeds 善行

practice of no pride in spiritual attainments 無增上慢行

practice of not despising others 不輕行

practice of the presence of the invisible dharmakāya in the esoteric word 不思議眞言相道法

practice of virtue 行德

practice without attachment 行無著行

practices are not initiated 諸行不生

practices deception 行欺誑

practices for treatment of the spirit during the intermediate stage 中陰法事

practices in a impenetrable forest 稠林行

practices meditation 修觀行

practices of mental purification 心淸淨行

practices that bring about wholesome roots that are induced by cultivation 修所引善根生起行

practices that do not lead to liberation 不出離行

practicing the expedient and the real 行權實

practicing the precepts 律行

practitioner 行者

practitioner and the dharma s/he avails her/himself to 機法

practitioner of meditation 修靜慮者

praise and disparagement 讚毀

praiseworthy 可稱讚

pratyekabuddha 辟支佛人

pratyekabuddha-body 辟支佛身

pray for

pray for rain 雨乞

preacher 唱導師

precept (forbidding) killing 煞戒

precept (forbidding) stealing 偸盜戒

precept (forbidding) the consumption of alcoholic beverages 飮酒戒

precept against harming others by one's own stinginess (parsimony) 不慳戒

precept forbidding dealing in alcohol 不酤酒戒

precept forbidding false speech 亡語戒, 妄語戒

precept forbidding sexual misconduct 不婬戒

precept forbidding speaking of the faults of one's fellow practitioners 說同法人過戒

precept forbidding speaking of the faults of others 說他罪過戒

precept forbidding speaking of the faults of the four groups of renunciant practitioners 說四衆名德犯過戒, 說四衆過戒, 說在家出家菩薩戒, 說過戒

precept forbidding the consumption of alcohol 不得飮酒戒

precept forbidding the slander of the three treasures 誹謗戒

precept forbidding the taking of life 不殺生戒

precept of not killing 不煞戒

precept of not-killing 不殺戒

precept protecting spirits 護戒神

preceptor 和尚, 律師, 阿闍梨

preceptor of the emperor 天師

precepts aimed at the improvement of the situation of sentient beings 饒益有情戒

precepts collection 律藏

precepts concerned with cultivation of positive behavior 作持門

precepts for novices 沙彌十戒, 沙彌戒

precepts for the self-reflective 囘心戒

precepts for the three activities 三事戒

precepts meeting 布薩

precepts of the sages 大仙戒

precepts related to the cultivation of good phenomena 修善門, 受善法戒, 攝善法戒

precepts that are free from characteristics 離相戒

precepts that engage the cultivation of good behavior 作持戒

precepts that engender the wisdom that is unimpeded in regard to the three times 三世無障礙智戒, 三平等戒, 三昧耶戒

precepts tradition 律派

precepts vehicle 律乘

precepts-governed repentance 律懺

precious gem 大摩尼寶

precious region 珍域

precious treasures 妙珍財

predetermined 已定

predicate 後說


prediction of future buddhahood 受決, 和伽羅那, 和羅那, 弊迦蘭陀, 授決, 毘耶佉梨那, 記說

prediction with remainder 有餘授記

prediction without remainder 無餘授記

predominant characteristics 勝相

pre-eminent designations 最上施設

preface 序分

prejudiced and impartial 偏正

prelate 座主

preparation 資糧

prescribed 分明說

presence in similar instances and absence in dissimilar instances 同品有異品非有

presence in similar instances and presence in dissimilar instances 同品有異品有

presence in similar instances, both presence and absence in dissimilar instances 同品有異品有非有

presence of the Buddha 佛前

present and future 現法當來

present benefits 現益

present conditions 現在緣

present constant 現常

present of the future 現在未來

present of the past 過去現在

present retribution 現報

present time 現時

present world 現在世

present world and future world. 現當

present, past, future 現過未

presently manifest 現在前

presently manifest existence and subsequent existence 現法後法

presently manifested affliction 現縛

presently perfect 今圓

president 首座

pressure and constraint 逼迫

prevent dissipation 不令流散

previous day 隔宿

previously 先已

previously acquired 先所得

previously active 先行

previously created 先所作

previously cultivated tranquility 先修止行

previously unexplained 先所未說

priceless treasure 無價之寶

pride , 憍慢

pride in regarding oneself as only a slightly inferior to those who far surpass one 卑慢

pride in superior spiritual attainment 上慢

pride in the dharma 法慢

pride of incorrectly understood inferiority 卑下慢

pride of not being inferior 不如慢

priest 和尚

primal mystery 元妙

primary afflictions 上首煩惱

primary task of a patched-robe monk 衲僧家本分事

primordial 元始

primordial chaos 混沌

primordial material nature 冥初, 冥性, 冥諦

prince 童子

prince of the dharma 法王子

princely almsgiver 大施太子

principal and secondary 主伴


principle and example 法喩

principle for making distinctions 差別道理

principle of change 化理

principle of consciousness only 唯識理

principle of emptiness 空理

principle of generality 同句義

principle of selflessness 無我理

principle of the selflessness of phenomena 法空理

principle of the truth(s) 諦道理

principles of things 物理

prior action (karma) and subsequent effect 先業後果

prior exists, but no subsequent 先有後無

prior habituation 先習

prior karma 先業

prior lifetime 先世

prior skillful means 前方便


private interview 獨參, 獨參入室

proceed to the great vehicle 向大乘


proclamation 吿示

proclivities (seeds) which are cultivated in the present lifetime 習成, 習所成種姓

proclivities 使

proclivity acquired by practice 習種性

proclivity for ignorance 無明使

prodigal son 窮子

produced as the result of practice 修生

produced by causal conditions 緣生

produced by discrimination 分別生

produced causes 生起因

produced from meditation 修所成

produced from seeds in the ālaya 種子所生

produces benefit 作利益

produces faith 生信心

produces the conceit 'I am' 起我慢

produces the non-beneficial 作不利益

produces three kinds of circumstances 能生三事

producing causes 能生因

production , 生起

production from both 共生

production of karmic formations 行生

production of other phenomena 餘法生

production of various karmic formations 諸行生

production of wholesome roots 善根生起


profound approach 玄門

profound commentary 玄疏

profound doctrine 玄宗

profound matter 深事

profound meaning 玄義

profound non-existence 妙無

profound principle 玄則

profound resonance 玄應

profound teaching 妙教

profound thought 冥思

profound way 玄道

profoundly learned 遠達

profundity on which all things depend 依止甚深

prohibition against sexual misconduct 不邪淫

prohibition and exhortation 誡勸

prohibition of sexual misconduct 不邪婬

prohibitions of thirteen crimes against the saṃgha 十三僧殘戒

projection into rebirth 引生

projections of consciousness 影像

prolonged life 延命, 延壽, 延年

propagation rice 化米

propagation tea 化茶

propagation-charcoal 化炭

properly carried out 如理作

properly enter 入正

properties of the expedient means for bringing under submission 調伏方便界

property of the resident saṅgha 現前僧物

property of the saṅgha 僧物

proponent 立者, 立論者

propose a thesis 立論

prospectus 化疏

prosper on the way 三跋致, 三跋諦

prospering 漸增盛

protagonist and antagonist in debate 立敵, 竪敵

protect , 守護, ,

protect the dharma 護法

protect the state 護國

protecting ones own... 防自

protection of life 護命

protective amulet 護符


proven in common 共所成立

proverb 世諺

providing others with comfort 與樂

providing sentient beings with the dharma 法攝受

provisional and ultimate truths 安立非安立諦

provisional coalescing of the five aggregates 五蘊假和合

provisional existence 假有

provisional explanation 假設, 方便說

provisional manifestation 化現

provisional or temporary

provisional self 假我

provisional synthesis 假和合

provisional teaching 方便語, 權說

provisional teachings 假門

provisional use of language 假用言說

provisional words 假名言相

provisional, temporary existence or thing 假法

provisionality or actuality of the things in the three times 三世假實

provisionally acknowledged 假許

provisionally discriminates 方便分別

provisionally established 假設安立

provisionally existent but not truly existent 假有實無

provisionally-named bodhisattvas 假名菩薩, 假者菩薩

provisionally-named existence 假名有

proximate causal referent(s) 親所緣緣

pseudo-proposition 似宗, 似立宗

pseudo-reason 似因

pseudo-refutation 似能破

public case 公案

public realm 公界

pulling one's students 御徒衆

punishment 治罰

puppet 傀儡子

pure 梵淨, 淨妙, 淸淨, , 阿摩勒, 阿摩羅, 阿末羅

pure and impure activities 淨不淨業

pure and impure defilements 染淨垢

pure cognition at the mundane level 世間淨智

pure dharma realm 淸淨法界

pure effects 淸淨果

Pure land 淨土

pure marks 淸淨相

pure mindfulness 念淸淨

pure practices 梵行

pure realms of the great vehicle 大乘純界

pure root of unobscured cognition 無障智淨根本

pure sounds 雅音

pure thusness 淸淨如

pure white garments 鮮白衣

pure white teeth 齒鮮白

pure worldly knowledge obtained after (non-discriminative knowledge) 後得淸淨世智

purgatives 布儞阿偈

purgatory 那落

purifiable 可修治

purifiable seeds 可修治種子

purification 修治, 淸淨, 齋戒

purification of all kinds of cognition 一切種智淸淨

purification of all kinds of mentation 一切種心淸淨

purification of all kinds of perceptual referents 一切種所緣淸淨

purification of all kinds of supports 一切種所依淸淨

purification of faith and resolve 信勝解淨

purification of wholesome roots 善根淸淨

purified through removal of pollution 離垢淨

purifies 淨治

purifies the abodes 修治諸住

purifies the mind 令心淸淨


purity in actions 行淸淨

purity of mind 心淨

purity of the six senses 六根淸淨

purport 阿施

pursue cultivation 進修

pursue discovery and examination 隨尋隨伺

put in stūpa

put the hands together and fold the fingers 合掌叉手

putting it down 放下着

qualities of understanding of phenomena 法智品

qualities of understanding of phenomena in the path of seeing 法智品見道

queen of heaven 天后

quelled 所伏

quelling-elimination of seeds 種子伏斷

quells active afflictions 伏現纏

quells afflictions 伏煩惱


question and answer 問答

questioning ritual 求聞持法

quickly accomplishes 速疾能辦

quickly attain penetrating wisdom 速證通慧

quickly attains fruition 速得成立

quickly change 速疾轉變

quickly disappear 速滅沒

quickly manifest (change, alter) 速疾轉

quickly realizes unsurpassed perfect enlightenment 速證無上正等菩提

quiescence 寂靜

quiescent 奢多

quiet sitting 靜坐

quinennial assembly 五年大會, 五年會

quite ripe 已成熟


rabbit in the moon 月兎

radiant eyebrow 光毫

ragged clothes 雜碑衣

raging current of (false) views 見暴流

raging current of ignorance 無明暴流

rain 伐里沙,

rain of flowers 雨華

rain of the fine dharma 微妙法雨

rainbow 帝釋弓

rainy season 雨時

raises one hand 擧一手


rank of five

rank of sage 仙尊位

rank of sentient beings 衆生等


rapidly advances to realization 速疾趣證

rapidly and completely realize 速疾圓證

rapidly consummates 速圓滿

rare 難有

ration bowl 乞食鉢

rationale for two paths 二道理


reader 讀師

real 實者, 爲實

real dharmas; real factors; real phenomena 實法

real views 實見

real wisdom 實智

reality body 法身

reality body subject to transformation 變化法身

reality of phenomena 法眞

reality of the single lotus 一蓮之實

reality of the three chiliocosms 三千實相

reality realm of great forbearance 大忍法界

reality realm of the solitary realizers 緣覺法界

reality-realm 法界

realization 現證, , 證果

realization gained by no-thought meditation 無想果

realization realm 證境

realizations, or fruits held in common 共果

realize full comprehension of all theories 證得一切論智

realizes that they are nothing but a pure mass of suffering 證得唯有純大苦蘊

realizes the perfect liberation of those still in training 證有學圓滿解脫

realizes unsurpassed perfect enlightenment 證無上正等菩提

really his (theirs, etc.) 彼所有

realm , 馱都

realm of an atom 一塵法界

realm of dharma 法域

realm of enjoyment after death 離生喜樂地

realm of human existence 人界

realm of incense—a monastery 香刹

realm of infinite perception 識無邊處地

realm of infinite space 空無邊處地

realm of neither perception nor non-perception 非想非非想處地, 非有想非無想處

realm of non-defilement 無漏界

realm of non-obstruction between phenomena 事事無礙法界

realm of nothingness 無所有處地

realm of ordinary people 凡境

realm of phenomena 事法界

Realm of Samantabhadra 普賢境界

realm of separation from ordinary enjoyment in favor of sublime bliss 離喜妙樂地

realm of solitary realizers 獨覺境界

realm of the aggregates 陰境

realm of the bliss of the four virtues 四德樂邦, 四德波羅蜜

realm of the enlightened ones 聖境界

realm of the hungry ghosts 鬼法界, 鬼界

realms brought under submission 調伏界

reappear 復現

reappears 還起

rearises 還起

reasoning 比量

reasoning for others 他比, 他比量, 爲他比量

rebirth as a human being 人道

rebirth as an animal 傍生趣, 血途

rebirth as hungry ghost 餓鬼趣

rebirth as titan 修羅道

rebirth in the Pure Land 一九之生

rebirth in the pure land 往生淨土

rebirth in the temporary land 便往生

rebirth in Tuṣita Heaven 兜率上生

rebirth into a higher stage of existence 往上地生

rebirth with great influence 大勢生

rebuke 呵責

receive a name 受名

receive a prediction from 與授記

receive a vision 奉見

receive the precepts 受戒

receive the teaching 稟教

receive with both hands

received (experienced) earlier 先所受

receives and practices respectfully (?) 修受

receives defilement 被染

receiving the dharma of the three refuges 三歸受法

receiving the five precepts 受五戒

reception of karmic experiences 法受

receving the pure precepts 受淨尸羅

reciprocally 互爲

recitation of the precepts 誦戒


recite and study (the scriptures) 誦學

recite the precepts every fifteen days 半月半月誦

reciting preceptor 羯磨師, 羯磨阿闍梨, 羯磨阿闍棃, 羯磨阿闍黎

reclusive sage 仙聖

recollection of Buddha 佛隨念

recollection of the deity 天隨念

reconcile and unite various (conflicting) doctrines 和會

recondite scriptures 微妙經典

record of souls 鬼錄

red flower (used for dye) 大赤華

referent as causal condition 所緣緣

referential object 所緣


refrain (stop) for the time being 且止

refrain from 防禁

refraining from taking life 離殺

refrains from discriminating 不起分別

refutation 能破者

refuted 可破, 所破

refuting the marks of the great vehicle 大乘法相教

regard as 以爲

regardless (of person, class, kind) 不拘

region 差多羅

region of India 印域

region of the wind -wheel 風際

region of the wind-wheel 風輪際

register of names 名籍

regress and fall 退墮

regret , 追悔

regretting midway 中悔

regulated times for eating 齋時

regulates parsimony 調伏慳吝

regulation dress 章服

regulation of monk and nun ordination by the government 度僧

rehabilitation 出罪


rejected 所棄, 所棄捨

rejoice in gratitude 隨喜

rejoicing (in all good) 隨喜方便

rejoicing deer 鹿杖

rejoined 更互相應

related to 待對

relative truth 世俗諦

relentless 阿毘至

reliable friends 善友

reliance for impermanence 無常依

reliant on the marks of phenomena 依法相

relics 設利

religion 宗教

religious practitioner 求道人, 求道者

religious ritual 祠祀

religious training or discipline 練行

rely on 依怙

relying on the dharma 法依

relying on the fully explained teachings and not on the incomplete teachings 依了義經不依不了義經

relying on the meaning and not on the words 依義不依語

relying on the teachings and not on the person 依法不依人

relying on the ultimate truth 依第一義

relying on wisdom and not on the ordinary mind 依智不依識

remain in non-retrogression 住不退轉

remaining in the sitting posture 常坐不臥

remaining karmic impressions 餘習

remaining masters 有餘師

remedied by a good understanding of the treatises 善知論所對治

remembering 隨起憶念

remembrance 記念, 隨記念

remembrance of the buddha in this thought 卽心念佛

remembrance of the Buddha's name 念佛

remnants of affliction 煩惱餘


remove , 除去

remove all evil 除一切惡

remove and disperse 除散

remove doubt 除疑

removed from all marks 離衆相

removed from words 離言

removing want 除饉

rends asunder 裂破

renewed appearance 復生

renounce the secular life 出家

renouncing 無所顧

renovate 修葺

renown and age 名臈


renunciant bodhisattvas 出家菩薩

renunciant group of bodhisattvas 出家分

renunciant monk 出家者

renunciant practitioner 修行者, 喪門

renunciant practitioners 出家修行

renunciation, escape, free from 出離

reoccur 復轉

reorientation to the Buddhist path 囘趣

repair 修葺

repair the thatched roof 修葺

repeated activity 數數起

repeated cultivation 多修

repent 後悔

repent inwardly 心悔

repentance 叉磨, 懺悔

repentance according to marks 取相悔

repentance and confession 出罪方便

repenting crimes to others 可呵法, 各對應說

repenting crimes to others; individual confessions 向彼悔

replete with kindness 具憐愍

replete with learning; fed full with study 飽學

replete with merit 具足功德

repository of all wisdom 一切智藏

representation 表象

reprimand and expel 訶責擯罰

rescue 救援

rescues 救濟

resemble closely 仿佛


resident monks/nuns 現前僧

resolution , 決意

resolve 阿地目多, 阿提目多, 阿提目多伽

resolve difficulties 防難

resolve doubts 决疑

respectful and harmonious activity 和敬業

responds gently 往返和好

response aspect of a buddha 加持門

response body 應身

response to capacity 機感


restart 復起

restlessness 掉擧

restraint 制止


result nature 果性

results of non-conceptualization 無想報

results of skillful means 方便果

retains the final body 任持最後身

retention of meaning 義陀羅尼

retinue 眷屬圍遶

retire from one's seat 退席, 退座

retired abbot 老和尚, 退居和尚

retractable penis 陰藏, 馬陰藏

retribution , 報生, 異熟, 與果

retribution for evil acts 罪報

retribution of good and evil karma 善惡業報

retrogress from the mind of enlightenment 退菩提心

retrogressing mind 退心

return (transfer) one's merit to another 廻向


return to the source 反本

returning payment 囘祭, 囘財

revealed (or complete) doctrine scripture 了義經

revealing cause of buddha-nature 了因佛性

revere virtue 崇德

reverence and faith 崇信, 崇敬信仰

reverent harmony 和敬

reverent harmony in oral unity in chanting 口和敬

reverently believe in 仰信

reverse metaphor 逆喩

revival of Buddhism 佛教復興

revived 復活

revolve 運轉


reward body 報身

reward of the pure land as a result of the vows of Amitābha 大願淸淨報土

reward-body 三菩伽迦耶

rewards of the six perfections 六度果報

rewitnessing aspect 證自證分

rhinoceros 佉加,

rhinoceros horn 佉伽婆沙, 佉伽毘沙, 朅伽毘沙拏, 犀角

rice broth 羹飯

rice-gruel 乳粥

rides 能乘

right behavior 正業

right behavior of post-learners 無學正業

right concentration 正定

right concentration of post-learners 無學正定

right effort of post-learners 無學正勤

right emancipation as held by the adepts 無學正解脫

right hand 右手

right livelihood 正命

right livelihood of postlearners 無學正命

right mindfulness as held by the adepts 無學正念

right shoulder 右肩

right side

right side of the body 右脅

right speech of post-learners 無學正語

right thought of post-learners 無學正思惟

right view 正見

right view of post-learners 無學正見

right wisdom of post-learners 無學正智

righteous monk(s) 義士

ripeness of the faculties of sentient beings matched with the teachings of the Buddha 機教

rising and falling 升沈, 起墮

rising numbers 上數

ritual , 法式

ritual of the one word golden wheel 一字金輪法

ritual-enacting monk 法僧

rituals for the protection of children 護童子法


river burial 河葬

river god as slave 河神小婢

river of affliction 煩惱河



roam about freely 逍遙自在

roam through the heavens 遊虛空天

roar of the true lion from within the great assembly 大衆中正師子吼


robe and bowl 衣鉢

robe and the dharma 衣法

robe for entering the palace or the town 入王宮聚落衣

robe free of dust 離塵服

robe free of taint 離染服

robe sack 三衣袋, 盛衣, 衣囊, 衣袋, 袈裟行李, 袈裟袋



root aggregate 根本蘊

root consciousness 本識, 根本識

root of all defilements 一切雜染根本

root of defilements 雜染根本

root of pride 慢根本

root of transgressions 罪根

roots of the wholesome factors are immature 善根未熟

rope of life 命藤

rosary 咒珠, 念珠, 數珠, 誦珠

rough and evil park 麤惡苑

rough speech 麤言


round and again round 雙圓

rows of trees 行樹

royal Buddha of shining flames 光燄王佛

royal days 王日

royal feast 王膳

royal preceptor 王師

royal sage 王仙

royal samādhi

royal samādhi of numberless referents 無量所緣三摩地王

rule of equality for entering buddhahood 入佛平等戒

rule of the three white foods 三白法


ruler of the five officials 五官王

ruler of the herd 人尊牛王

rules adapted for special circumstances 隨方毘尼

rules and laws 律法

rules and prohibitions 誡禁

rules of action 行儀

rules of behavior 作法

rules of forfeiture of the things that a monk or nun possesses superfluously 三十尼薩耆波逸提法


rungs of a ladder 階梯

running (agitatedly) 馳騁

rushing about in the six destinies 忙忙六道


sacerdotal robes 僧服, 僧衣, 法衣

sacrificial ceremonies 犧牲祭

safflower 倶遜婆

saffron 鬱金, 鬱金香

sage , 聖者

sage deer king 仙鹿王

sagehood 聖果

sages of the three vehicles 三乘聖人

sages still in the stage of discipline 有學聖人

sages who are free from desire 已離欲聖者

sages with one interval remaining 一間聖者

said to be one hundred thousand-fold 說百千數

saindhava 先陀

sainika 先尼

saint 牟尼, , 聖人

Śākyamuni, world-honored one 釋迦世尊

Śākyamuni's death 佛滅

Śākyamuni's putting his foot out of his coffin 槨示雙趺

Śākya-stūpa 釋迦塔

sāla tree 沙羅

saliva and tears 吐涙

salty 鹹味

salty ocean 鹹海

salutation to the universal Triratna 作禮方便

salvation 解脫

salvation of sentient beings 衆生救濟

salvation through the complete removal of the obstruction of illusion 障盡解脫

samādhi and prajñā society 定慧社

samādhi of emptiness; samādhi of no-marks; samādhi of non-contrivance 空無相無願三昧

samādhi of no sensation 不受三昧

samādhi of obtaining light 明得定

samādhi of universal illumination 普光三昧

Samantabhadra after the Buddha 佛後普賢

samāsa 三摩娑

same 一般, 同一

same as the buddhas 與諸佛同

same as the prior 同前

same body 同體

same cause, same effect 一因一果

same conditions 同緣

same destination 同趣

same dharma 同法

same effect 一果

same essence 同體

same method 一揆

same precepts 同戒

same realm 一際

same single basis 一依, 一依止

same spot 同處

same teaching of the single vehicle 同教一乘

same time 一時, 同時

same, without difference 等無異

saṃgha as a harmonized group 和合衆

saṃgha treasure 僧寶

sandalwood 栴檀

sands of the Ganges 河沙

Sanskrit alphabet in fifty letters 五十字母

sap-bearing tree 差利尼迦

sapphire 大靑珠

savable 得滅度者

save 得度, 救援

save sentient beings 度生

save sentient beings below 下濟衆生

save without limit 度無極

saver 能度

saver from the burning rock 度沃焦

saves 救濟

saves sentient beings 度衆生

savors 珍著

say , 名名

say it's not the Buddhist teaching 言非佛說

say like this 作是言

say once 一稱


scattered mind 散亂心

scavenger caste 卜羯姿, 補羯姿


School of Correct Logic 正量部

school of the mean 中宗

school of the single, real perfection 一實圓宗

schools of Buddhism that are based on śāstras 論宗

schools that hold to the doctrine that all naming is provisional 假名宗

science of arts 工業明

science of arts or engineering 巧智

sciences of engineering, crafts, etc. 工巧智

scolding the buddhas and vilifying the patriarchs 訶佛罵祖

scolds 訶責

scooping the moon out of well water 井中撈月


scorching hot hell 焦熱地獄

screened 所障隔

scripture of the single vehicle 一乘經

scripture(s) 契經

scriptures of doubtful authenticity 疑經

scriptures that do not reveal the complete teaching 不了義經

scriptures written on tree-leaves or bark 樹經

scroll painting that is hung behind the main altar 上壇幀畵


scrutinize phenomena (dharmas) 法循觀

scrutinizes thusness 觀眞如

sculptured image 形像

sea of blood 血海

sea of suffering through birth and death 生死苦海

seal 一印

seal of a monastery 大衆印

seal of Buddha truth 一法印

seal of determined wisdom of all experiential realms 一切法界決定智印

seal of omniscience 一切遍智印

seal of one true mark 一實相印

seal of the Buddha-mind 佛心印

seal of the great sword of wisdom 大慧刀印

sealed with the sign of adulthood 大人相印

seamstress 裁縫女, 防那

seat , 阿薩曩

seating 單位


second attainment of the śrāvaka path 第二果

second bodhisattva ground 二地

second Buddhist Council 第二結集

second fruit 二果

second head 二頭

second meaning

second meditation heaven 二禪天

second month 吠舍佉

second patriarch 二祖

second patriarch severed his arm 二祖斷臂

secondary affliction(s) 隨煩惱

secondary afflictions 小惑, 枝末惑, 隨惑

secondary marks 隨相

secondary sons 庶子

secret (dharma) store 祕蜜藏

secret 祕密

secret teaching 隱密門

sect that believes that Maheśvara created the first woman 女人眷屬論師

section on positing the meaning 立義分

sects or teaching of adaptable philosophies not revealed by the Buddhas and 隨轉理門

sects which maintain the emptiness of all things 一切皆空宗

secular classics 世典

secular world 世間

security 安保

seduced by other things 他所引奪

seed , 鼻致迦, 鼻鼓迦

seed consciousness 種子識

seed nature 種性

seed of buddhahood 佛種

seed of faith 信種

seed-nature developed from habituation 習所成種性

seed-nature of the two vehicles 二乘種

seeds arisen from previous habituation 先習起種子

seeds developed through the habituation that occurs in the present lifetime 習成種子

seeds of affliction 煩惱種, 煩惱種子

seeds of all consciousnesses 一切識種子

seeds of all phenomena 一切諸法種子

seeds of consciousness 識種子

seeds of defiled phenomena 染法種子

seeds of formless phenomena 無色法種子

seeds of ignorance 無明種

seeds of mind 心種子

seeds of mind and mental functions 心心所種子

seeds of the great elements 大種種子

seeds of the hindrances 障種子

seeds of wholesome factors 善法種子

seeds that aid in the production of form 造色種子

seeds that are not purifiable 不可修治種子

seeds that exist by the nature of things 法爾種子

seeing a counterfeit body 僞身見

seeing each other 互相見

seeing ground 具見地

seeing things as they are 如實見

seek (practice for, strive for) enlightenment 求道

seek and attain 求得

seek bodhi above 上求菩提

seek enlightenment above, transform sentient beings below 上求菩提下化衆生

seek fame 求名

seek mundane indifference to objects of desire 希求世間離欲法

seek the above original source 上求本來

seeker of existence 求有

seeking long life 命求

seeking re-birth 求生

seeking the path without expedient means (?) 無方便求道

seeking the way 訪道

seeking to cultivate good factors 善法欲

seeking to get (e.g. pleasure) 得求

seeking to liberate 求解脫

seeks broad learning 求多聞

seeks nirvāṇa 求涅槃

seeks the true teaching 求正法

seems to be the same as... 似同

seen 世現見

seer 仙人

seer and seen 能見所見

sees the beginning 見始

sees various colors and shapes 覩衆色像

seized 有得

select 簡取

selecting and rejecting 取捨, 取舍

selection 决擇

selection of a worthy 選賢

self 我者

self and phenomena are both empty 倶空

self that is posited 所立我

self-cultivation 修身

self-enlightened one 獨覺, 辟支佛

self-indulgence 隨意事

selflessness 我無性, 無我性

selflessness of phenomena 法無我性

self-nature body 自性身

self-natureless-ness 無自性性

self-power 自力

self-praise 自讚

self-protection 護身

self-realization 己證

self-training 私習

self-view 我見

self-witnessing aspect 自證分


semblance dharma 像法


send back 令還

sending off the dead 送終

senior 先生

senior monk 上臈

senior practitioner of the path 先達

senior rank 先進


sensation and perception 受想

sensation of cold 冷觸

sensation of neither pleasure nor pain 不苦不樂受

sensation of pleasure 樂受

sense 意說

sense base 阿也怛那, 阿耶怛那

sensory and physical afflictions 事惑

sentient being(s) 衆生

sentient beings 含識

sentient beings and so forth 有情等

sentient beings and the dharma are essentially the same 機法一體

sentient beings are limitless in number 衆生無邊

sentient beings are without beginning or end 衆生無始無終

sentient beings in the experiential realm 法界有情

sentient beings lacking religious faculties 無根有情

sentient beings lacking the capacity for buddhahood 無姓有情

sentient beings of the ten directions 十方衆生

sentient beings of the undetermined class 不定聚衆生

sentient beings who lack the nature of buddhahood 無性有情

sentient beings with greatly enlightened minds 大道心衆生

sentient beings with shallow merit 薄福衆生

separate essence 異體

separate from language and cut off thought 離言絕慮

separate from the body 離身

separate oneself from defilement and attain purity 離垢淸淨

separated by a distance as vast as that between heaven and earth 天地懸隔

separated by birth 隔生

separately distinguished 各別

serious crime 偸羅遮, 偸蘭, 偸蘭遮, 偸蘭遮耶, 大罪, 窣吐羅, 窣吐羅底也


serve the Buddha 事佛

serves as referent for the production of thought 爲緣生意

service to the king as occupation 事王業

service to the rulership 事王

services 法事

services or ceremonies 行事

serving as mutual causes 展轉爲因

set fire to 焚燒

set forth an explanation 竪說

set of five cognitive awarenesses 五識身

set up a teaching tradition 立教開宗

setting the mind 內住

setting up a single altar 一檀構


seven abodes of consciousness 七識住

seven ancestors 七祖

seven and eight practices 七八行

seven appurtenances of a monk 七事隨身

seven arrow medicine kings 七躬醫王

seven aspects of thusness 七眞如

seven atoms; seven particles 七微

seven bases of fortuitous karma 七有依福業

seven branches 七支

seven branches of enlightenment 七等覺支

seven calamities 七災難, 七種災難, 七難

seven cases and nine conjugations 七例句, 七轉九例

seven celestial bodies 七曜

seven characteristics of bodhi 七聖覺

seven circumstances for bringing into the fold 七攝受事

seven consciousnesses 七識

seven constellations and deities 北方七曜衆

seven contaminants 七垢

seven contemplations 七作意

seven correctives 七治

seven days 七日

seven destinies 七趣

seven dharma assets 七法財

seven dharmas 七法

seven distortions 七顚倒

seven divine mothers 七摩怛里, 七母天

seven dreams 七夢

seven elements 七大

seven emotions 七情

seven emptinesses 七空

seven evil karmas 七惡

seven excellences 七善

seven existences 七有

seven expedients 七方便

seven factors of enlightenment 七菩提分, 七菩提寶, 七覺分, 七覺支

seven flowers 七華

seven forms of kindness 七相憐愍

seven forthcoming consciousnesses 七轉識

seven fragrant oceans 七香海

seven gold mountains 七金山

seven groups (of Buddhist disciples) 七衆

seven groups of beings who fall into the water 七衆溺水

seven groups of people 七衆人

seven groups of precepts 七聚

seven healing buddhas 七佛藥師

seven heinous crimes 七逆, 七逆罪

seven holy treasures 七聖財

seven hundred sages 七百賢聖

seven jewels 七寶

seven kinds 七種

seven kinds of almsgiving 七種布施

seven kinds of birth and death 七種生死

seven kinds of Buddha worship 七種禮佛

seven kinds of clothing 七種衣

seven kinds of contemplation 七種作意

seven kinds of detachment 七種捨

seven kinds of eloquence 七辯

seven kinds of food 七種食

seven kinds of impermanence 七種無常

seven kinds of impurity 七種不淨

seven kinds of latencies 七種隨眠

seven kinds of non-returning 七種般

seven kinds of peerlessness 七種無上

seven kinds of pride 七慢

seven kinds of re-incarnation 七種結生

seven kinds of repentant mental states 七種懺悔心

seven kinds of self-nature 七種自性

seven kinds of suchness 七種眞如

seven kinds of vinaya for ending disputes 七滅諍

seven knowledges 七知

seven latent afflictive tendencies 七使

seven layers 七重

seven lifetimes 七生

seven limbs of enlightenment 七菩提寶, 七覺支

seven mental realms 七心界

seven metaphors 七喩

seven modes of discourse 七種語

seven monks 七僧

seven monk's endowment 七僧齋

seven parables 七譬

seven parables of the Lotus Sūtra 法華七喩

seven part invocation 七支念誦

seven parts of the body are perfectly proportioned 七處皆滿

seven past buddhas 七佛

seven perfections 七最勝

seven places 七處

seven places are fully proportioned 七處皆滿相

seven powers 七力

seven preparatory practices 七加行

seven punishments 七羯磨

seven pure flowers 七淨華

seven rhetorical powers 七種辯

seven riches 七財

seven rows of trees 七重行樹

seven rules for settling disputes 七滅諍法

seven schools 七宗

seven sisters 七姉妹

seven sons 七子

seven sounds(?) 七聲

seven stages of application 七加行位

seven stages of goodness 七賢

seven stages of goodness and seven stages of holiness 七賢七聖

seven stages of holiness 七聖

seven stations of expedient means 七方便位

seven step snake 七步蛇

seven steps 七步

seven surpassing qualities 七勝事

seven tathāgatas 七如衆

seven texts of the Pali abhidhamma canon 七部論

seven treasures 七珍

seven treatises 七論

seven unavoidables 七不可避

seven unsurpassed paths 七無上道

seven views 七見

seven vinaya 七毘尼

seven virtuous (stages) 七賢位

seven witnesses 七證

seven witnessing teachers 七證師

seven worthies 七丈夫

seven-hall temple 七堂伽藍

seven-jewel stūpa 七寶塔

seven-leaf cliff 七葉巖

seven-piece garment 鬱多羅僧

seven-piece robe 七條, 七條衣, 七條袈裟

seventeen dhyāna heavens of the form realm 十七天, 色界十七天

seventeen stages 十七地

seventh astrological sign

seventh bhūmi 七地

seventh consciousness 七識

seventy 七十

seventy-five 七十五

seventy-five dharmas 七十五法

seventy-five dharmas in five categories 五位七十五法

seventy-three honored ones 七十三尊

seventy-two devas 七十二天

seventy-two words 七十二字

seventy-two years old 七十二歳

severe affliction 上煩惱

severing of association 相應斷

severs the ninth 斷第九

sexual attraction to form 形貌欲

sexual attraction to human features 人相欲

sexual desire 女情, 婬欲

shadow 光影,

shadow and echo group 影響衆

shadow phenomena 影事

shadow response group 影向衆

shadow-guardian 影護

shadows and echoes 影響

shamaness 女巫


shameless heretics 裸形外道

shamelessness 無愧

shape and form 形色

shape or object that serves as a symbol or emblem 三昧耶形

shapes of the five great elements 五大形

shared and distinct 共不共, 通別

shared approach 通門

shared base 共依

shared base of mindfulness 共念處

shared bases 倶有依

shared basis 倶有所依

shared bonds 共結

shared characteristics; mutually, each other 共相

shared dharma 共法

shared doctrine 共宗

shared experience 共感

shared karma 共業

shared religious action or performance 共事

shared retribution 共報

shared teaching 通教

shared ten stages 共十地

shared terminology 共安立

shared wisdom 共般若

shares the same essence 共體

shares the same objects with the thinking consciousness 與識同境

sharing the same basis with the world 共世間

sharp faculties 利根, 利機

sharp precipice 懸岸

sharp spiritual faculties 速通

sharpest faculties 最利

shaves one's beard and hair 除鬚髮

shed a buddha's blood 出佛血

sheer cliff 懸岸, 懸崖


shielded 所障隔

shimmering waters 焰水

shining hill 光明山

shining white 光白

ship of the fine dharma 妙法船

shit-stick 乾屎橛


short cut

should be eliminated 所應斷

should be understood like this 應如是知

should not be 無然

should not receive 不應受

should not say... 不應說

shout 一喝

showing 能示

shown 已顯

shows the true characteristics 示眞實相

shrine 偸婆

shrine hall for the seven stars (big dipper) 七星閣

sick-bed of the triple world 三界牀

sickness caused by ghosts 鬼病

Siddhaṃ alphabet in fifty letters 五十字門

side door 偏門


sign 一印, , 契印

sign of omniscience 一切偏智印

sign of the assurance of attaining Buddhahood. 一切如來必定印

sign of the production of all realms of reality 一切法界生印

sign of the wisdom of all buddhas 一切如來智印

sign on a Buddha's breast 一切佛心印

signless buddha 無相佛

signless meditative absorption 無相三摩地, 無相三昧

silent absorption 默照三昧


silver 阿路巴

similar and different 等不等

similar and immediately antecedent conditions 等無間緣

similarly attained 同得

similar-partial, dissimilar-whole 同品一分轉異品遍轉

simultaneous arising and ceasing 同生同滅

simultaneous cessation 同滅

simultaneous liberation 倶解脫

simultaneously 一處, 倶時

simultaneously arising cause, coexistent cause 倶有因

simultaneously born deity 同生天

sin 吉羅, 罪業

since 已還

since becoming buddha 成佛已來

since long ago 從昔來

since oneself and all things are not different, when one pursues things s/he finds the self 逐物爲己逐己爲物


sincere words 誠信言

sing in verse 偈讚

sing or warble, as birds do

single 有一

single absolute purity 一究竟淸淨

single Buddha-vehicle 一佛乘

single candle of a poor person 貧者一燈

single color 一色

single dharma of the middle way 一法中道

single dharmadhātu 一法界

single gate 一門

single great matter 一大事

single ground 一地

single hempseed 單麻

single marvelous pure path 一妙淸淨道

single reality 一實

single reality realm 一法界

single reality without marks 一實無相

single seat 一堂, 一座

single substance of water is perceived in four different ways 一水四見

single taste 一味

single truth 一諦

single type of cognition 一智

single vehicle 一乘

single vehicle and three vehicles 一乘三乘

single vehicle bodhisattva 一乘菩薩

single vehicle enlightenment 一乘菩提

single vehicle of the fine dharma 妙法一乘

single vow upon which Pure Land is established 一願建立

single-arm vajra

single-layer base of red and blue 丹靑基壇

single-minded (sect) rebellions 一向一揆

single-minded adherence to Confucianism 儒專

single-mindedly chanting the Buddha name 一心念佛

single-realm-ness 一境性

single-vehicle theory 一乘論

Single-word Mañjuśrī 一字文殊

singular emptiness 一空

singular goal 一趣

sink 沈沒

sinless birth 無罪生

sit erect 端坐

site of enlightenment 道場

sitting on the seat of enlightenment 坐道場

situation 事況


six affairs of completion 六事成就

six animals 六畜

six arhats 六羅漢

six arrows 六箭

six articles for worship 六供具

six ascetic techniques 六術

six attributes 六德

six bases of mindfulness 六念處

six bases of the senses 六入, 六阿也怛那, 六阿耶怛那

six basic mental defilements 六根本煩惱

six boats 六舟

six bodhisattva stages 六卽, 六種住

six categories (padārtha) of existence 六句義

six characteristics observable in existent things 六相

six characteristics of seeds 種子六義

six classes of perception 六想

six coarse aspects 六麤相

six coarse marks 六麤

six combinations 六和合

six consciousnesses 六識

six contacts 六觸

six correct practices 六正行

six data fields 六塵

six days of purification 六齋, 六齋日

six days of purification in the month 月六齋

six decayers 六衰

six decisions 六裁

six defilements 六染

six defiling factors 六垢, 六垢法

six deluders 六妄

six desire heavens and four meditation heavens 六欲四禪

six desires 六欲

six destinies 六趣, 六道

six determinations 六决定

six dharmas that practitioners are to be mindful of 六法

six difficult attainments 六難

six directions 六方

six earthquakes 六種震動

six elements 六大, 六大界, 六界

six external sense bases 外六處

six external sense-fields 六外處

six fallacies of inconclusiveness in the reason 六不定過

six faultless ways of gathering in sentient beings 六種無倒攝受

six feminine attractions 女人六欲

six flavors 六味

six forbidden crimes 六夷

six forms of Avalokiteśvara 六觀音

six grades of crimes 六篇, 六聚戒, 六聚罪

six great afflictions 六大煩惱

six great Mahāyāna scriptures 六部大乘經

six grounds 六地

six heavens 六天

six heavens of the desire realm 六欲天

six hours or periods in a day 六時

six internal sense bases 內六處, 六處

six internal sense-fields 六內處

six interpretations of compound terms 六種釋, 六離合釋

six kinds of attachment of mind 六著, 六著心

six kinds of blood relations, for which there are various definitions 六親

six kinds of cases concerning crime related to killing 六殺

six kinds of cases concerning fault related to killing 六種殺

six kinds of causes 六因, 六種因

six kinds of certainty 六種決定

six kinds of circumstances related to killing 六種殺生

six kinds of contemplations 六觀, 六觀法

six kinds of correct practice 六種正行

six kinds of defiled mind 六染心

six kinds of defiled thought 六種染心

six kinds of deluded conceptual bondage 六種妄想縛

six kinds of innate afflictions 六種倶生惑

six kinds of intentions (concerning liberation) 六種意樂

six kinds of mindfulness 六念, 六念法

six kinds of non-Buddhist philosophers 六種外道

six kinds of offenders 六罪人

six kinds of skillful means 六種巧方便

six kinds of taking in of sentient beings 六種攝受

six kinds of transcendent practices 六種波羅蜜多

six kinds of trembling 六震

six kinds of wisdom 六慧

six knots 六結

six latent propensities 六隨眠

six living beings 六衆生

six logical categories 六諦

six manifestations of Kṣitigarbha 六地藏

six marvelous practices 六妙行

six meetings 六合

six metaphors 六喩, 六如, 六譬

six metaphors for impermanence 六無常六譬

six minor marks 六種隨好

six mundane destinies, and four holy rebirths 六道四聖

six mysterious approaches for practicing meditation 修禪六妙門

six natures 六種性

six non-Buddhist austerities 六苦行

six non-Buddhist masters 六師外道

six non-Buddhist teachers 六師, 外道六師

six non-Buddhist treatises 六論

six non-enlightened realms 六凡

six objective realms 六塵境界

six objects 六境

six obstacles 六蔽

six Part Abhidharma 六分阿毘曇

six perfections 六到彼岸, 六度, 六成就, 六波羅蜜, 六波羅蜜多

six periods of meditation 六時三昧

six periods of penance 六時懺

six periods of unremitting devotions 六時不斷

six periods of worship 六時禮讚

six perpetual abodes 六恆住, 六恒住

six personal belongings of a monk 六物

six phrases 六句

six portents 六瑞, 六般神足

six practices 六行

six precepts 六法事, 六法戒

six primary afflictions 六煩惱

six principles of the Vaiśeṣikas 六句義勝論派

six schools 六宗, 六宗教

six scriptures 六經

six seals 六種印

six sects of the southern capital (Nara) 南都六宗

six sensations 六作, 六受

six senses 六依

six sovereign rulers 六自在王

six stages 六位

six supernatural powers 六神通, 六通

six swords 六劍

six syllable dhāraṇī of Mañjuśrī 六字文殊

six syllable name 六字名號

six syllables 六字

six thieves 六賊

six transcendent practices 六度, 六波, 六種波羅蜜

six treatises of the Sarvâstivāda school 六足論

six tusked white elephant 六牙白象

six types of compounds in Sanskrit grammar 六合釋

six types of contemplation 六行觀

six ways of clearly perceiving presently existent objects 六現觀

six ways of taking in 六種攝

six ways that Buddhist practitioners should live in harmony and be sensitive and caring towards each other 六和敬

six ways that monks harmonize with each other 六和

six wheel-turners 六輪

six windows and one monkey 六窗一猿

six years 六年

six years of austerities 六年苦行

six-faced honored one 六面尊

six-legged Honored One 六足尊

sixteen 十六

sixteen arhats 十六羅漢

sixteen aspects 十六行

sixteen aspects of the noble truths 十六行相

sixteen bodhisattvas 十六大士, 十六正士, 十六菩薩

sixteen celestials 十六大天, 十六天

sixteen characteristics of emptiness 十六空

sixteen contemplations 十六想觀

sixteen feet 丈六

sixteen foot form of the Buddha 一丈六像

sixteen good deities 十六善神

sixteen great arhats 十六大阿羅漢

sixteen great powers 十六大力

sixteen holy functions 十六聖行

sixteen kingdoms (of ancient India) 十六國王

sixteen lesser hells 遊增地獄

sixteen major states 十六大國

sixteen meditations 十六觀

sixteen meditations on the truths 十六諦觀

sixteen mental states 十六心

sixteen necessities 十六資具

sixteen observances of practice 十六行觀

sixteen practices 十六心行

sixteen princes 十六王子, 十六王子佛

sixteen śrāmaneras 十六沙彌

sixteen states 十六國

sixteen teachers 十六師

sixteen truths 十六諦

sixteen views (of self and self-objects) 十六知見, 十六神我

sixteen-foot diamond-body 丈六金身

sixth consciousness 識蘊

sixth stage of abiding 六住

sixty 六十

sixty fascicles 六十卷

sixty mental states 六十心

sixty thousand verses 六萬藏

sixty-four brahmanic sounds 六十四梵音

sixty-four eyes 六十四眼

sixty-four writings 六十四書

sixty-six occasions for the training of behavior 六十六衆學法

sixty-two (mistaken) views 六十二見

skilful means such as these 如是方便

skilfull karmic wisdom 工巧業智

skilled artisan 善巧工匠


skillful appearance 善現行

skillful at entrusting 善付囑

skillful correction 善修治

skillful determination 善決定

skillful discrimination 善巧差別

skillful in regard to the ultimate truth 善於勝義

skillful interpretation 善釋

skillful knowledge of all mundane matters 善知一切世間

skillful means 善權方便, 方便

skillful means for bringing under submission 調伏方便

skillful means of non-abandonment of birth and death 不捨離生死方便

skillful means that develop good roots 善根增長方便

skillful practice 善修習

skillful single-pointedness of mind 善心一境性

skillfully amasses 善積集

skillfully analyze (ascertain, observe, contemplate) 善觀察

skillfully applied practices 善加行

skillfully apprehend(ed) 善受

skillfully discriminates 善分別

skillfully establishes 善立

skillfully grasps the marks of an object 善取其相

skillfully pure intention 善淸淨意樂

skillfully questions and answers 善能問答

skillfully shows 方便示現

skillfully teaching the dharma 善法行

sky 空中, 虛空中

sky-flower(s) 空花

sky-flowers 空華

slander , 讒言, 離間

slander the true dharma 誹謗正法

slave , , 奴僕, 奴隸, 馱索迦, 駄索迦

slaves and menials 奴婢作使

slaves and so forth 奴婢等

sleeping on the right side of the body 右脅臥

slender calves 伊泥延腨相

slight 微少, 稍輕

small appropriation 狹小執受

small bell 半鐘, 喚鐘

small stone

small vehicle 小乘


snake spirit 摩睺羅迦

snake-shaped demigod who brings clouds and rain

snap of the fingers 一彈指

snap the fingers 彈指


so be it 且喜

soapberry 無患子

soar 翺翔

soiled clothing 垢衣

sole path 一向趣

solicitation for the donation of a big house 有主僧不處分房

solid mass 健南, 健男, 凝厚, 羯南

solitary dwelling 獨居

solitary realizer 獨覺, 緣覺界, 辟支佛

solitary realm of reality 獨一法界

some object(s) 同境

some places 幾處

someone whose religious capacities are fully matured 已成熟者

something 有少

Song of Dharma Nature 法性偈

sorcery 咒術

soul 布路沙, 補盧沙,

soul of the dead 亡魂

soul-snatching demon 奪魂鬼

sound 聲境

sound is impermanent 聲無常

sound of drumming 鼓音

sound of hymns 誦音

sound of shivering tongues 阿波波

sound state of mind 心調善

sounds made by frozen throats 嘔侯侯


Southern Buddhism 南方佛教

southern course 南行

southern India 南天, 南天竺

southern pure land 南方無垢世界, 南無垢

southern tradition 南道

sovereign in regard to the dharma 法自在

sovereign of great compassionate teaching 大恩教主

sow the seed 下種

space 空中, 空界, 虛空, 虛空中, 阿迦奢

space-like 如虛空

spacious without limit 空無邊

sparkling good factors 熾然善法


speaking and hearing together, or at the same time 齊說齊聞

special 有勝,

specially honored 特尊

species retribution 總報

specific teaching of three separate vehicles 三乘別教

specified 所別

speck of dust on a hare's down 兎毛塵

speck of dust on the hair of a sheep 羊毛塵

speech 言說, ,

speech and silence 說默

speech constituted by teachings that accord with the truth 如理說語

speedily obtain 速得

speedy 奮迅

spell 持明

sphere of Buddha 佛界

sphere of consciousness 識界

sphere of limitless consciousness 識無邊處

sphere of the infinity of space 無量空處, 空處定

spilling a buddha's blood 出佛身血

spirit kings of the ten mountains 十山王

spirits controlling all directions 主方神

spirits of the six elements 六大神

spiritual luminosity of the single path 一道神光

spiritual or heavenly part of the soul

spiritual powers of non-impediment 自在神力

split like a lotus 缽特摩

spontaneous phenomena 倶生法

spontaneously appearing 現成

spontaneously arisen 任性而起

spontaneously occurring 倶生任運

spotless 上妙淸淨

spread out like clouds in the sky 雲布

spring 機關

springing out of the earth 從地踊出


spurious scriptures 僞經

squat on the heels 嗢倶吒


śrāvakas on the path to extinction 一向趣寂聲聞

stabilization 奢摩他

stabilizing the mind 停心

stable 槽廠, 馬房

staff 竿

staff or pole held by the god Yama 人頭幢

stage of abiding 住位

stage of accumulation 資糧位

stage of activity of non-enlightenment 不覺現行位

stage of anointing of great wisdom 大智灌頂地

stage of applied practices 加行位

stage of arhat 阿羅漢位

stage of consciousness in the aspect of impulse 行趣識住

stage of consciousness tending toward sensation 受趣識住

stage of correct practices 行正行地

stage of determination 決定地

stage of determined practice 決定行地

stage of difficult attainment 難得

stage of directly becoming apparent 現前地

stage of dry wisdom 乾慧地

stage of equipment 資糧位

stage of far-reaching 遠行地

stage of freedom from defilement 離垢地

stage of fruition 引果

stage of gentle harmony 調柔地

stage of initial application 加行位

stage of innate potentiality 種性位

stage of investigation of the five bodily consciousnesses 五識身相應地

stage of joy 極喜地, 歡喜地

stage of latency 隨眠位

stage of markless expedient means 無相方便地

stage of marvelous enlightenment 妙覺地

stage of nescience 無明地

stage of no more learning 無學果

stage of non-regression 不退轉位

stage of non-retrogression 不退位, 不退轉地

stage of observing joy 觀喜地

stage of omniscience 一切智地

stage of overcoming difficulty 難勝地

stage of patience 忍位, 忍地, 忍辱地

stage of patience ensures that there will be no falling into the lower paths of transmigration 忍不墮惡趣

stage of patience in regard to phenomena 忍法, 忍法位

stage of practice 修習位, 行地

stage of practicing the virtues of the middle path of noncontamination, and seeing that good and evil are not two 隨順平等善根

stage of realization of the absolute 一眞地

stage of subtle analysis 妙簡擇住

stage of supreme attainment 最上大悉地

stage of tathāgata 如來地

stage of tathāgatahood 如來住

stage of the appearance of equal enlightenment and great bodhi 現前等覺大菩提住

stage of the dharma-cloud 法雲地

stage of the five bodily consciousnesses 五識身地

stage of the full possession of discipline 具戒地

stage of the non-returner 阿那含果

stage of the path of cultivation 修道位

stage of the purity of the six faculties 六根淸淨位

stage of the ten faiths 十信位

stage of unimpeded form 色自在地

stage of unimpeded mental function 心自在地

stage of warmth 煖位, 煗位, 煗法

stage of worldling 異生位

stage produced from cultivation 修所成地

stage that has neither marks nor effort 無功用無相住

stage where one sees that the good and evil actions of all sentient beings are not different 隨順等觀一切衆生

stages of repeated practice 多修習住

stages of the three kinds of worthies 三賢位

stain from immoral action 犯戒垢

stain of afflictions 煩惱垢

stain of sentient beings 衆生垢

stained mind 染心

stainless tolerance 無垢忍

stand out from the class or rank 出陣

standards of action 行爲規範

standing straight up 上靡

stanza 首盧, 首盧柯, 首盧迦

start over again 反覆

starting board 催板

starting point


state a proposition 立量

state of attainment that is free from taint 無漏果

state of being unmoved by pleasure or pain; uncompounded phenomena of unfluctuating cessation 不動滅無爲

state of existence 得轉

state of full attainment of arhatship 阿羅漢果

state of no-thought 無心地

state of the non-arising of dharmas 無生法

state of thoughtless fainting 無心悶絕位

state of thoughtless meditative concentration 無想定位

state of thoughtless sleep 無心睡眠, 無心睡眠位

state or abode of all wisdom 一切智句

statement 標說

states of mental activity 心位, 有心位

states of mental inactivity 無心位

states of non-meditation 不定地

states which lack mental stability 不靜地



stay in the womb 住胎

staying for religious practices 參籠

stays in a hermitage 住庵

steadiness 常准

stealing 偸盜

stealing through charms, spells, etc. 呪盜

stele 碑石

stick and shout 棒喝

sticking to one thing 一持

stifling of the afflictions due to disillusionment with them 厭患損伏

stifling the afflictions by calming the mind 奢摩他損伏

still unsure 猶未定


stinginess with dharma assets 法慳

stingy with the teachings 法惜

stinking hungry demon 布怛那

stone Buddha 石佛

stone lantern 石燈

stone niche in which a buddha-image is placed 龕室

stone stele 石碑

stop 停止

stop up 留礙

stoppage 所不行

stopping board 站板

stopping meditation 放禪

store 阿賴耶

store consciousness 藏識, 阿梨耶識, 阿賴耶識

store consciousness that contains all seeds 一切種子阿賴耶識

store of faith 信藏

store of fearlessness 無畏藏

store of great wisdom 大智藏

store of ignorance 無明藏

store of immeasurable merit 無量功德藏

store of the eternal spiritual nature, free from earthly errors 出世藏

store-consciousness 阿利耶, 阿黎耶

storehouse of brilliance 光明藏

storehouse of the budda-dharma 佛法藏

stories of the lives of saints 一曰多伽, 一目多伽

stream enterer 窣路多阿半那

stream of consciousness 識相續

stream-enterer 入流, 溝港, 預流

stream-winner 須陀洹人

strength is weak 力微劣

strength of reliance 依止力

strength of suchness within 法力

stretching or spreading not

string of 108 beads 百八念珠

strong , ,

strong-smelling things 香物

stuck to the trees 附木

student 弟子

study 式叉




subdue dragons 降龍

subdue the obstructions to enlightenment 障治

subdue the three worlds 降三世

subduer of fiery dragons 降焰魔尊

subduer of lions 伏虎

subdues and extinguishes 能伏滅

subduing forbearance 伏忍

subject 先陳

subject of an example 喻依

subject of the example 喩依

subjective and objective grasping 能所取執

subjective aspect 見分

subjective discrimination 能遍計

subjective indifferentiation of thusness 無別眞如

subjugated 所伏, 被伏

sublime and pleasant — but worldly — state of meditative concentration 世間可愛妙定

sublime aspiration(s) 妙善意樂

sublime bliss 妙樂

sublime middle 妙中

sublime sounds 微妙音

sublime words 妙言

submerged in ignorance 沈冥

submersed in birth and death 沒生死

subordinate officials 僚屬

subsequent age 後世

subsequent chant 後唄

subsequent dharma 後法

subsequent discursive investigation 隨尋伺

subsequent instant of thought 後念

subsequent pain 後苦

subsequent retribution 後報

subsequently 已終

subsequently arises 後起

subsequently attained 後所得

subsequently attained conventional wisdom 後所得世間智

subsequently attained knowledge 後智

subsequently attained purified conventional wisdom 後所得世間淨智

subsequently attained wisdom 後得智, 後所得智

subsequently attained worldly wisdom 後所得諸世間慧

subsequently-attained non-discriminating cognition 後得無分別智

subsequently-existent myriad sufferings 後有衆苦

subsequently-existent thinking consciousness 後有意

substance of the example 喩體

substantial 有體

substitution of function of the sense faculties 六根五用

subsuming three 會三

subtle 幽致

subtle activity 微行

subtle afflictions 微煩惱

subtle analysis 妙簡擇

subtle and light (thin, insipid) 微薄

subtle and mysterious