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趣入解脱之门—皈依 Entering the Door of Liberation—Going for Refuge to the Three Jewels
翻译:xiaoxiaocao | 阅读:0 收藏:0 推荐:0 评论:5

皈依三宝始终学修摄要颂

                         能海上师集述

     

趣入解脱之门

                         ——皈依

                         智敏上师开示

 

免费赠阅,欢迎助印

 

 

皈依三宝始终学修摄要颂

           能海上师集述

 

甲一、三宝之名体分三

    乙一、赞三宝体相分二

                  丙一、赞叹皈愿分三

丁一、赞佛宝

总赞                  诸一切种诸冥灭  大悲三智十力身

别赞悲智            法界虚空一切种  如其所有尽所有

                         无上正等正觉知  观诸众生同一子

皈愿                   我今皈依永皈依  皈依佛道誓愿成

   

丁二、赞法宝

总赞                  佛说三藏十二部  教证名言诸轨持

别赞教                流转还灭体相用  名诠旨趣等随行

别赞证                诸乘道地一切证  能依所依因果等

皈愿                  我今皈依永皈依  皈依法门愿修证

   

丁三、赞僧宝

总境                  三贤十地四果向  剃发染衣具戒者

                         三乘四部八大子  从佛转轮圣比丘

别境                  龙树无著执金刚  法王第二宗喀巴

                         大悲法流恩师众  出家得戒传法尊

赞德                            具戒定慧解脱等    度生大愿流无尽

皈愿                            我今皈依永皈依    愿断烦恼度有情

 

丙二、三宝法喻

总释                            如来正法贤圣僧  明净坚严希无上

法喻                         佛如良医法妙药  将护病者说名僧

 

乙二、释内体之自性三宝

自性                            佛谓自觉法者正    自性离染清静僧

                                   有情皆自具三宝  譬如木中本火性

须藉钻等胜势力  所谓佛种从缘生

   

乙三、释外缘之一切三宝分三

                         丙一、同体三宝

同体                  佛即是法法即僧  名义有三性不异

                         三宝常住同真际  亦第一义亦法身

                        

丙二、别相三宝   

别相                  于一佛宝中  有诸身等别

                         于一大藏中  教理行果分   

                         依佛教修行  三贤及十圣

                         四果四向等  菩萨声闻僧

   

                         丙三、依诸乘分别三宝

大乘佛宝            自觉觉他觉行满  具足三身五智身

                         菩提大悲以庄严  是名大乘之佛宝

大乘法宝            无畏无流证教法  实相中道二空理

                         乃至无量度摄门  皆名大乘之法宝

大乘僧宝            不畏生死不入流  恒求自苦他安乐

                         度生大愿无穷尽  是名大乘之僧宝

小乘三宝            丈六紫金三十二  阿含四谛因缘法

                         缘觉声闻四果向  是名小乘之三宝

密乘三宝            大日如来金刚尊  密乘四部生圆教

                         住戒勤修证道等  得大法乐诸品僧

常住三宝             金坭画像及舍利  三藏名言教证体

                         剃发染衣现前众  久住于世持佛法

 

甲二、皈依之因由分五

                  乙一、引佛说偈

反显               众人苦所逼  多皈依诸山

                         园苑及丛林  孤树制多等

                         此皈依非胜  此皈依非尊

                         不因此皈依  能解脱众苦

正明              诸有皈依佛  及皈依法僧

                         于四圣谛中  恒以慧观察

                         知苦知苦集  知永超众苦

知八支圣道  趣安隐涅槃

  结成              此皈依最胜  此皈依最尊

                         必因此皈依  能解脱众苦

 

                  乙二、难闻难得

  离八种苦          地狱鬼畜生  长寿北俱卢

                         诸边地下贱  盲聋暗哑等

                         世智邪辩才  正法灭尽时

                         是名曰八难  难闻佛法故

  得十圆满          众同处所依正圆  现生不作五无间

                         无诸邪见信业果  如是五种内圆满

                         大师世俗胜义法  教犹住世证未隐

                         诸种资缘悉具足  如是名为外圆满

 

                  乙三、念死无常   

  念死              有情决定死  死来无定期

                         死至不可拒  死后何所归

  念无常            是日已过  命亦随减

                         如少水鱼  智者应思

 

                  乙四、观察诸苦   

                生为苦之因  众苦所依聚

                         老病诸愁忧  无常等住地

                         烦恼复随生  逼迫身心等

                         生为死之因  无生何有死

              老苦复可怜  盛色日衰减

                         腰弓头似银  面皱不乐看

                         念力多忘失  命根快欲断

                         寿者复多忧  久忧长不死

              四大不均平  逼恼身心苦

                         肉瘦皮干枯  动止不自由

                         威仪难振作  受针灸等痛

                         乐境欲不兴  时时断命忧

              死苦痛舍难  一切携不去

                         极可爱自身  眷属良朋翼

                         田宅诸财物  势位巧文艺

                         父母诸妻子  不能相偕去

                         死时万苦煎  死后何处去

                         大名势财能  皆不免于此

怨憎会苦          若仇怨相逢  怖报怨治罚

                         恶名声逼命  避免苦复生

爱别离苦          由世境所迫  亲爱眷属离

                         发起愁忧恼  悲哭等痛心

求不得苦          农种不获实  商贾而失利

                         欲高位无阶  求闻事反违

                         或心灰意冷  恼丧等难堪

或苦思计较  欲求不得苦

  五取蕴苦          贪著于五蕴  流转苦增盛

                         引后有无穷  成现在苦器

                         亦盛苦苦器  虽暂时随己

                         与乐境共生  舍离苦复起

                         引起死中后  犹连锁无尽

                         果缚未脱离  子缚已早生

                         流转尽六道  数数取舍身

                         积骨过须弥  乳泪胜海深

                         损益业不定  胜劣趣无凭

                         独来亦独往  无人作伴侣

                         长劫受重苦  复不作厌弃

                         亦不求停息  随风浪起止

  观六道苦          诸天战争时  断支殒命等

                         劣天被驱摈  死住不自在

                         修罗多嫉妒  热恼而兴斗

                          截支或断命  虽智不见谛

                         人苦谓生等  苦逼如鬼狱

                         或修罗畜生  似天而速坏

                         畜弱肉强食  困饥渴猎等

                         耕负任打杀  但念水草淫

                         饿鬼业由贪  内外自体障

                         人间月为日  寿命五百年

                         地狱中轻苦  胜刺三百槊

                         寒热等无间  寿命同天量

             

乙五、皈依三宝为欲自救救他

                         ——结成皈依之因由

  难得难遇          人生实难得  佛法尤难遇

                         如须弥引针  盲龟浮木等

  身命无常          此身如聚沫  无常刹那尽

                         游履八苦中  流转六道轮

  无别人法          诸山林园苑  孤树灵庙等

                         自苦既未离  他苦云何济

                         悲小杂嗔贪  执我心不平

                         我谛审谛观  不能离二苦

  唯依三宝          唯五智三身  十力四无畏

                         大悲方便语  慈心利有情

                         能救济自他  是正真皈依

                         此皈依因由  应熟读深思

 

甲三、皈依之受持分二

                  乙一、受得

  受得方法          决定信乐皈三宝  无谄诳骄从师受

                         千里无僧佛前受  后遇僧时速具仪

 

乙二、行持分三

                         丙一、别学皈戒

应止              不皈天神外道等  不恼不害于有情

                         不与外道等共住  违此三法失皈依

  应持                皈敬如来是我师  皈敬正法证教体

                         现前僧众贤圣等  直至菩提永皈依

                        

丙二、共学六支

  念德供养                常念三宝胜功德  恩德无边应供养

  度生求愿                于诸众生发宏愿  凡所兴求白三宝

  皈礼护戒                晨夕三七作皈礼  守护皈戒如爱命

   

丙三、附学八种

  精进心            决定信乐皈三宝  常恒勤修无止息

                         于戒止持呵五欲  弃贪嗔等诸盖缠

                         了境正信正念心  慧定施戒护愿等

                         三业专一殷勤修  如是功德向三宝

  念心              常念三宝恩  殊胜诸功德

                         孝子念父母  戏语不言舍

                         念念不去心  道种因积集

                         加持难思议  他生犹熟客

  慧心              慧心谓择法  知功过得失

                         魔等不动转  断除诸恶见  

  定心              由慧力皈依  心定如山王

                         诸魔不动摇  违缘心更固

  施心              施他量可量  受报有后现

                         如来正法僧  不可量受现

                         报恩除罪业  去贪少守护

                         资福调练身  恒常施不断

                         要恭敬净财  丰盛不俭草

                         整肃亦庄严  亲身行为妙

                         不图他观美  不图他忻赞

                         善愿为他故  正等菩提观

护心              护三宝护戒  护内心善法

                         七众皆有责  各各护不同

愿心              立志光远  不怯不弱

                         殷勤策励  满四宏愿

                         世世生生  得逢三宝

                         如法修行  护自三宝

回向心            以此胜功德  回向于自他

                         梦中心常念  究竟无舍离

                         我及父母众  恒依止三宝

                         直至菩提座  永久作皈依

 

甲四、皈依之功德利益

现前利乐          现前大威势  度自他八苦

王贼兵狱难  水火风饥渴

                         贫穷诸灾厄  应念得销除

                         诸毒不能害  恶咒不能著

                         诸天龙鬼神  精祗魔魅等

                         灾星与恶星  药叉罗刹众

                         一切非人祸  灾害不能侵

                         远危难斗诤  横夭决不临

                         身强家宅安  财位速成就

                          求子女眷属  一一皆如愿

                         日夜身心调  睡眠无恶梦

                         衣食住病药  四缘悉随顺

                         正寿增色力  愚痴者增慧

                         乐施增富饶  见善且勇为

  后时利益          常逢善知识  有暇闻正法

                         了知正因果  修为无倒错

                         家庭常雍乐  悉作修行侣

                         得世人尊仰  出言人皆信

                         能建立三宝  救济诸苦困

                         生死若客游  不忧堕恶趣

  究竟利益          能如法修为  由戒生定慧

                         从初地至十  渐入如来位

                         度现生父母  并累世宗亲

                         宏愿无穷极  行普贤大行

 

 

 

趣入解脱之门皈依Entering the Door of Liberation—Going for Refuge to the Three Jewels

敏公上师开示 By venerable Guru Min

 

一、进入三宝之门皈依三宝 Entering the door of three jewels---go for refuge

 

我们要进入三宝之门,首先就是要皈依三宝为入门之法了,我们没有皈依以前,大家都根据自己的烦恼去造业,造了业就在六道轮回里边受苦,这样子反反复复,无始以来我们不知已受了多少苦。如果我们再不想受苦了,那么该怎么办呢?这就必须要依靠三宝了。依靠三宝的力量,使我跳出这个轮回的苦海,这个就叫做『皈依』。

Enter the door of three jewels, first of all, we must go for refuge to the three jewels. Before taking refuge, all of us have followed our afflictions and accumulated evil karma. Because we accumulated the evil karma, we transmigrated and suffered in the six realms. Time after time, we don’t know how much misery we have suffered from the beginningless. If we don’t want to suffer any more, what should we do? Then we must depend on the three jewels. Relying on the power of the three jewels, we can leave the miserable sea of transmigration. Then this is called going for refuge to the three jewels.

 

『皈依』也是鉴别我们是不是佛弟子的一个标准:是佛的弟子,必须是受了皈依的;不是佛的弟子,就是没有受过三皈依的。不管是气功师也好,其它宗教徒也好,虽然他们也忠诚地信仰他们的教主,信仰他们的教典,但是他们的教主没有佛陀圆满无边的功德,他们自己还处在生死轮回之中,何能教人出轮回苦?他们的教法,不能净诸烦恼,出生死海,得安乐果,虽能勤修,仍不能脱苦,他们的皈依对象不是三宝,所以这些都不是佛弟子。

Taking refuge is a criterion for judging whether we are followers of Buddhism or not: followers of Buddhism must have taken refuge. Those who haven’t taken refuge are not followers of Buddhism, no matter they are Qigong practitioners or other religion followers although they may have strong faith in their hierarchs and their teachings. Their hierarchs lack the perfect good qualities of Buddha, and they are still in endless transmigration, how can they teach others how to get away from the transmigration? Their teachings cannot purify our afflictions, free us from the birth and death sea or give us the happiness. Even their followers practice diligently, they still cannot avoid suffering. The objects to which they go for refuge are not three jewels, and thus they are not followers of Buddhism.

佛弟子依靠三宝,能够超出一切苦,不但是三恶道的苦,同时看到人天乃至色无色界都有苦,更甚者,生人天还是无常,业果受尽以后仍会下堕,乃至地狱。所以对轮回中一切人天的苦,都要解除,这才是真正有力量的三宝。反之,其它宗教一般认为能生入天堂,就万事大吉了。因此,我们若真正要解除一切苦恼的话,除了皈依三宝,其它是没有一点办法的。

Followers of Buddhism depend on three jewels and can be liberated from all suffering, not only the suffering of the three miserable realms[1], but also the suffering in men and gods or even in form and formless realm. Even if you can be reborn as a human being or a god, it is still impermanent. When your effects of good karma end, you will be reborn in worse realms or even in hell. Truly powerful three jewels must be able to completely clear away all suffering in transmigration of men and gods. On the contrary, other religions usually tend to believe that it is already perfect to get rebirth in heaven. So, there is no way for us to get rid of all the afflictions except going for refuge to the three jewels.
  由此而论,我们对『皈依』这件事情,要看得慎重一点,不要轻描淡写地,磕个头,递个红包,起个法名就对了,就算皈依了。这样子,一般是得不到皈依的!要得到皈依的体,是有条件的。佛教讲缘起,缘起就是一个法要生起来,有其一定的因和缘,因缘具足,法就生起来,因缘不具足,那怕差一点点,这个法是生不起来的。

We must therefore be very careful and respectful to taking refuge. Bowing carelessly, giving some offer and getting a Buddhist name are not taking refuge. Only these actions can get no refuge! To get the essence of refuge (皈依的体, 请核实) is conditioned. Buddhism talks about the arising of condition[2], which means a form or a phenomenon appears due to certain cause and condition. Only when there is enough cause and condition can the form or phenomenon appear. If there is no enough cause and condition, even a little less than enough, the form or phenomenon can not appear.

那么,我们说要皈依三宝,这皈依三宝的体(无表色),它生起的因缘是如何呢?依佛教言,皈依有皈依的因,即自己要发起皈依的心,还要有皈依的缘,什么是皈依的缘呢?第一要有如法的师父,设如法的坛场,还有,如我们发的纸上写的,皈依仪式,迎请三宝,忏悔业障等等,这些都是皈依的缘。如果因缘具足了呢,当然,皈依体就会生起。这中间最不可忽视的一个,就是皈依的因,自己一定要发这个皈依的因,自己若没有发心的话,纵使缘再好,皈依体还是生不起来的。

We talk about taking refuge, and then what is the cause and condition of getting the essence of refuge to three jewels? According to Buddhism teaching, the cause of taking refuge is that we arouse the willingness of going for refuge. And we still need the condition of taking refuge, what is such condition? Firstly we must have masters who practice properly according to the teaching, and we need the venue (mandala) properly displayed. Moreover, as shown in the paper handed out to all of you, the ritual instruction for taking refuge, offering up a request to the three jewels respectfully, repenting our karmic obstruction and so on are also the conditions of taking refuge. If cause and condition is enough, then we can get the essence of refuge. The most unelectable is the cause of taking refuge. We must arouse great intention to take refuge. If we don’t have such intention, we cannot get the essence of refuge even if we have very good condition.
  所以我们对每一位来求皈依的人,先要把皈依的内涵跟你们讲清楚,使能真正得到皈依的体和利益。尽管授皈依的地方很多,是不是能得到真正皈依的,还不敢说,主要看你自己皈依的心发了没有。

So every time I will explain to all those who come here to take refuge about the essence of taking refuge to help them to get real essence and benefit of refuge. You can take refuge in many places, but you cannot say you can get true refuge definitely because it mainly depends on whether you have aroused the intention to taking refuge or not.

 

二、生起皈依之因两个要素 The causes of going for refuge—two causes

 

那么,什么叫皈依的心呢?最起码的,对于这个,我们学过的《俱舍》里边讲到的,六道轮回中三恶道的苦,地狱、饿鬼、畜生之苦,地狱、饿鬼一般人看不到,畜生之苦,大家都知道,黄牛为人干了一辈子活,挨鞭抽打不说,老了还被杀掉来吃。活的猴子把脑壳打开,用开水酱油辣椒浇进去,就吃,算是名菜。一盘活的虾子,一阵开水浇下去烫得虾子颠狂乱跳,用来供膳。还有‘全骡上市’,把骡四腿夹住,在骡身某部浇开水,烫熟了,割下,端给顾客享受,而骡还在厨房里拼命嘶叫——惨!这种恶道苦,《广论》、《瑜伽师地论》等都讲得很多,我们要生起恐怖之心,害怕自己堕入恶道受苦之心。

Then what is the intention to taking refuge? The basic cause is the suffering in the three miserable realms of transmigration in six realms, or the suffering of hell denizens, animals and ghosts, as what we have learned in Abhidharma Storehouse Treatise. We cannot witness the suffering of hell denizens and ghosts, but we can see the suffering of animals. Scalper serves the human being for its whole lifetime, being lashed by whip, and when it gets old, it will be killed for food. Living monkey’s skull is opened to fill in with hot water, sauce and chilli, and it becomes a famous dish. A plate of living shrimps are poured by boiled water and they ache to jump crazily. This is another dish. One more dish is called “the whole mule”, the mule’s four feet are clamped, then some part of the mule’s body will be poured by boiled water, and then this meat already burnt will be cut for the customers to enjoy, and the mule is still braying in the kitchen. Terrible! These kinds of sufferings are also stated in the Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment and the Stages of Yoga Practice Treatise etc., so we need to arouse horror and fear self being fallen into the miserable realms.

再进一步,对整个轮回之苦都生起恐惧之心。

再进一步呢,对一切众生堕在轮回受苦,我们要生起大悲心、菩提心,要把他们全都救出来,都不受苦。

   The second step is to arouse horror towards the suffering of transmigration of birth and death.

   The further step is to arouse compassion and bodhicitta on all the sentient beings who are still suffering in the transmigration, and take effort to free them all from such suffering.

这就是三种发心。第一种,最初对三恶道的苦心生害怕,希望解脱恶道之苦,能得人天暇满之身的,这是下士道,属于低层次的。第二种,对轮回六道,包括人天,感到都是苦,不希望再受这轮回之苦而求解脱三界的,这是中士道,属于中等层次的。第三种,看到一切众生都在受苦,不但自己要脱离轮回之苦,要把一切如母有情都救度出离三界,都离开这个轮回之苦,这是上士道,发菩提心,行菩萨行,属最高层次。

These are the three intentions. The first is to fear the suffering in the three miserable realms, to intend to liberate from such suffering and to gain a man or heavenly life of leisure and opportunity. He is the inferior person belonging to low level.

The second is to see the suffering in all six realms including the men and gods and thus strive for one’s own liberation from the transmigration. He is the mediocre person belonging to middle level.

The third intention is to see all beings in six realms are suffering and thus strive to liberate oneself as well as all the mother-like sentient beings from transmigration and the three realms as. He takes bodhisattva vows and practice bodhisattva deeds. He is the superior person belonging to the highest level.

所以,皈依的前提,首先是要看到苦,想到自己或父母有情受三恶道的苦及轮回六道的苦,要生起恐怖心,这是第一个条件。如果根本不生恐怖心的话,感到无所谓(愚痴!),那么这个求救的心也没有了,就是说皈依的心也就没有了。

So the premise of taking refuge is seeing the suffering. Once you know that yourself and your mother-like sentient beings are suffering in the three miserable realms or the six realms of transmigration, you will feel terrified toward this. If you feel nothing because of your innocence, or you don’t fell terrified, then you have no feeling of asking for help, which means you have no intention of taking refuge.

什么叫『皈依』呢?皈依就是求救,依靠一个崇高有力的对象,求他来救度我们,这个就是皈依的心——动机。如果我们自己没有恐怖,没有害怕的事,那还要依靠谁呢?当然,就不需要依靠了。所以说,首先要生起害怕受苦的恐怖心,对三恶道生恐怖心,继而对轮回六道生恐怖心,再进一步对一切如母有情在轮回中受苦,生恐怖心,发起救拔之心。我们自己害怕受苦,推而知之,一切有情都害怕受苦,因此设法使他们都脱离苦。这三个心虽然层次不完全相同,但是这个生起的恐怖之心是一样的。这个生起的对三恶道或者对轮回之苦的恐怖之心,是皈依的第一个要素。

What is taking refuge? Taking refuge is to ask for help, to depend on a powerful object and to ask for his help. This is the motivation to take refuge. If we fear nothing, then why should we rely on others? Of course, there is no need to do that. So, first of all, we should arouse feeling of terror towards the suffering of the three miserable realms, then further, arouse feeling of terror towards the six realms of transmigration, and furthermore, arouse feeling of terror on the suffering of all the mother-like sentient beings in the transmigration and thus arouse the compassion to save them. We ourselves fear suffering, and we can deduce that all the sentient beings fear suffering. So we should strive to liberate them from suffering. These three intentions differ in their level, but their feeling of terror is the same. The fear for the three miserable realms or the transmigration is the first cause of taking refuge.

单是生起了恐怖之心,够不够?还不够。生起了恐怖之心之后,我们要进一步追求如何解决这个恐怖呢?这就是说依靠谁来救拔我们的苦难呢?唯一的方法,就是依靠三宝!除了依靠三宝,此外是没有第二个能救度我们的苦难的。试看历史上那么多宗教,那么多哲学,真正能自己脱离苦难的,只有一个人就是二千五百多年前印度的释迦牟尼佛。佛洞悉宇宙真理,所以他自己真正地解脱了一切苦难,并且断绝了苦难之因,这是佛宝。佛陀把自己脱离苦难的方法,详细地说教给我们,这是法宝。依照佛陀所说之法,如法修行而得证验的,这就是僧宝。我们只有依靠这三个救命之宝,才能获得救度。所以说,我们若要解决苦难的话,若要对苦难所生恐怖之心,彻底解除的话,唯一的道路,就是皈依三宝——皈依佛,皈依法,皈依僧。这三个宝,缺一不可,而实际上三者是联系成一体的。

Is it enough to merely arouse fear? Not enough. After we have aroused feeling of terror, we should go further to solve the terror. Who can we rely on to solve our suffering? The only way is to rely on the three jewels. No one else can free us from suffering except relying on the three jewels. So many religions or philosophy have appeared in history, but the only one who can liberate self from suffering is the venerable Buddha Sakyamuni, who lived two thousand and five hundred years ago. Buddha knows the universal truth thoroughly, so he can liberate himself from all suffering and eradicate the root of suffering. This is the Buddha jewel. Buddha kindly construes to us in detail his way of liberating himself from suffering. This is the teaching jewel. The community jewel has the defining characteristic of obtaining verification through correct practice according to Buddha’s instruction. Only by relying on these three jewels, can we be liberated. So if we want to eradicate our afflictions and suffering, if we want to liberate ourselves from the terror towards them, the only way is to go for refuge to three jewels---go for refuge to Buddha, go for refuge to teaching, go for refuge to the community. These three jewels are in fact integrated, and none of them can be neglected.

总的归纳起来,我们要生起皈依的心,就是要有这两个要素:一个是对恶道、对轮回之苦生起恐怖之心;第二个呢?如何解决这个恐怖,我们要求救于谁才能得救呢?唯一的是求三宝——依靠三宝。这二个心有了,才算是皈依之心有了。

In all, the causes of our going for refuge are twofold: fear of the miserable realms and transmigration; and the second? To solve this fear, to whom should we go for refuge? Only to the three jewels, and rely on them. Only when we are convinced of these two caused, can we have the real intention of taking refuge.
  皈依的缘呢,在三皈仪式上都写明白了,并且也预先讲过的。先是迎请十方三宝降临为作证明,二忏悔自己过现业障,去除障碍。又皈依所要说的羯磨词,乃至最后回向,依此认真、明白地做了,就能得到皈依。此外在皈依前,僧众为你们念的心经及回遮偈,也是驱除皈依中的魔障使皈依能顺缘得到的一个缘起。

How about the condition of taking refuge? It has been written in the instruction to the ritual of taking refuge, and we have talked before. Firstly, we respectfully offer up a request to the three jewels in the ten directions to witness. Secondly we repent on our great karmic obstruction of the present and past to get rid of them. Thirdly we chant the Karma words for taking refuge and finally we dedicate all the merit to all. If you follow the session devotedly and clearly, then you can get the refuge. Before that, the community will chant Heart Sutra and the verse of return and restraint, to dispel the obstruction in the ritual and therefore create a favorable condition for you to get refuge.
  皈依三宝,皈依体得到之后,就是入了佛的门,为佛弟子了。那些以前在佛前面发了誓愿护持佛弟子的护法菩萨也就在你身边护持你了。但是,假使自己皈依的心没有发起来,尽管你参加了极隆重的皈依仪式,皈依体是没有的。表面上是皈依了,实际上佛教的门并没有进去,在佛教里边也没有你这个人,仍是个门外汉,当然护法菩萨也就不管你了,因为他们是专门护持佛教、护持依佛修行的佛教徒的,对门外汉,是没有责任来保护的。

Once you take refuge and attain the essence of refuge, you enter the door of Buddhism and become a follower of Buddha. The bodhisattvas who have taken vows before Buddha to protect Buddhist will protect alongside you. However, if you don’t arouse the intention of taking refuge, even if you joined the grand ritual, you don’t actually get the essence of refuge. You take refuge exteriorly, but you don’t even enter the door of Buddhism, you are still outside. Of course, the protector bodhisattvas will not protect you, because they are only responsible for protecting true followers, who practice properly according to the Buddha’s teachings. They don’t have the responsibility to protect outsiders.
  所以,我们自己一定要检查,不论过去皈依了的,或者现在要皈依的,这个皈依的心生起没有?(当然已皈依过的,还要检查羯磨文对了没有等等)没有生起,皈依体是得不到的。今天大家要皈依了,这个事情一定要跟你们讲清楚。这个皈依的心非常重要,而且一定要你们自己生起来的,其他的缘呢,我们可以为你们代办或帮助,发心非要自己不可。

So we must examine our minds if we have truly aroused the intention to take refuge, whether you have taken refuge or you are going to take refuge. If you have taken, you must compare your intention with the Karma verse of taking refuge. If you haven’t aroused the intention, you can’t get the essence of refuge. Today you are going to take refuge, so I must clarify all these to you. The intention to taking refuge is very important and you must arouse it by yourself. As for other condition, we can help or do for you, but you must arouse the intention by yourself.
  世界上有各种宗教,种类很多,包括气功师(鬼神教),信仰它们的,有没有用处呢?信仰它们之后,也可以除去世间上某些苦难。譬如贫困啦,或病难啦,鬼扰啦等等,在一定范围内,也能解除,因为他们也在过去世培了些福,修了一些禅定,在现世有一定的威势,或一定的神通(气功师一般是鬼神报得通,非禅定修得之通),可以做一些小小救苦的事情。但是他们不懂业果,不知忏悔去消除业障,根子没有除,所以他们所做的,只能是挖肉补疮,这边问题好象解决了,但不久又翻了,或那边又出新的毛病了,因为业力仍存在着嘛。而且他们的教主,本身就没有解脱生死轮回之苦,甚至恶道之苦,也是避免不了的,所以如果我们依靠他们,是解决不了真正苦难的问题的。只有皈依三宝,才能解脱世间一切苦难。从这点来说,我们能够皈依三宝,实在应该感到是最大的幸运。

There are many kinds of religion in the world, including the Qigong. Is there any benefit to believe in them? To believe in them, you may eradicate some afflictions in life, such as poverty, sickness, or nonhuman hindrances. They can eradicate some afflictions to a certain degree, because they have accumulated some merit and practiced some meditation in their past lives, and thus have some power or supernatural abilities (the supernatural abilities gained by Qigong practitioners’ are the supernatural abilities of retribution from spiritual ghost, not by practicing meditation.) They can solve a little affliction, but they don't understand karma, nor know how to repent to eradicate bad karma and obstruction, and thus cannot exterminate the root of affliction. What they are doing is like cutting your meat to cure your sore. It seems that you have solved one problem, but the same problem appears again soon, or a new problem arises, because the power of karma still exists. Even their hierarchs cannot liberate themselves from the suffering of transmigration of birth and death, or even protect themselves from the three miserable realms. So if we rely on them, we cannot really solve the afflictions. Only by going for refuge to the three jewels can we be liberated from all the sufferings. From this point of view, it is our greatest fortune to take refuge to the three jewels.

 

三、皈依体之保护基本学处 To protect the essence of refuge—basic precepts


  我们皈依三宝之后,对其他的宗教的教主或神职人员,能不能恭敬他们呢?他们也是劝人为善的么。西藏一位大德,帕邦喀仁波卿曾说:对于天神,或外道教主等等,莫说去皈依,依靠他,就是以崇敬的心态,对他们起了恭敬心,合个掌,皈依体就会失掉的。所以说我们皈依三宝之后,一定要注意,对一切天神,什么神庙、教堂等等,决不能向他们五体投地地礼拜,或求什么愿的,乃至起个恭敬向往仰慕之心也不行。否则,就会失掉皈依体,也就不成为一个佛弟子了。本来很不容易才能得到的皈依体,却这样很轻易地就失去了,岂不太可惜!所以说,一定要注意。

After we have taken refuge to the three jewels, can we respect other hierarchs and priests of other religion? They also teach us to do good things. A guru of Tibet, Pabongka Rinpoche said: for the gods or hierarchs of outsiders, if we arouse intention of respect, put our hands together respectfully toward them, we will lose our essence of refuge, let alone take refuge to them or rely on them. So after we have taken refuge to the three jewels, we must be careful that we definitely cannot bow down to gods, shrine or church etc. or make wish to them, nor can we merely arouse intention of admiration. Otherwise, we will lose our essence of refuge and cannot be a Buddhist. The essence of refuge, is lost however hard to gain it. What a pity! So we must pay attention to this.
  那么对这些神、主和神职人员,我们对他们的关系该如何呢?只能是朋友与朋友之间,互相帮忙,互相尊重的关系,不能对他有崇高向往仰慕恭敬的心。假如说,到医院里去看病,那个医生是信耶稣教的,有的人就问了,能不能请他看病呢?这个问题不大,你是付了钱的,请他看病,他是依医学知识给你治病打针、开方吃药等等,这是朋友之间的关系,大家礼尚往来,朋友之间的打交道,没有关系的。但不能有对他们所信的教,有依靠求救的心。对练气功的医生亦同样。但你如果对气功师医生,于他的气功神通起了信仰,请他以气功替你治病,如果对信仰耶稣教的医生,相信他的教义教主了,请他给你做什么祷告了,以这种方式替你治病,不行了,那皈依体就会破坏了!这个问题,也是要注意的。

To these gods, lord and priests, what should our attitude be towards them? It should be similar to the relationship between friends; we can respect and help each other, but we cannot admire them. For example, if you go to the hospital and the doctor is a Christian, and you may wonder whether you can let him cure you. This is a small problem. You pay him for curing, and he writes prescription or gives you an injection according to medical science. This is like the relationship between friends. You can communicate with them with courtesy, and there is no problem. But you cannot intend to rely on the belief they believe in. It is the same to the Qigong doctor. If you believe in his Qigong and supernatural ability, and ask him to cure you through Qigong; or you believe in your Christian doctor and believe in his doctrine or god, and thus ask him to pray for you for your recovery, then your essence of refuge is destroyed. You must be aware of this.
  此外,就是在皈依之后,还有许多事情必须要注意的。首先是对三宝的功德,要好好地去观察,如佛陀的身、口、意的功德,佛陀度生事业的功德,还有法宝僧宝的功德,当然这有很多,现在一下是讲不完的。一般皈依之后,就要依止善知识,听闻正法,如理作意,法随法行,慢慢地听闻,积累对三宝的功德的认识,经思维后产生定解,那么对三宝的真实信心,和恭敬心就会更有力的生起来,然后在身、语行动就会很自然地表现出来。

Furthermore, we need to pay attention to several things after taking refuge. Firstly, we must observe the good qualities of the three jewels such as the good quality of the Buddha’s body, speech, mind and Buddha’s activities for relief of all beings, as well as the good qualities of the teaching and the community. There are too many good qualities to interpret now. Generally, once you have gone for refuge, you should rely on excellent teachers, listen to the sublime teachings, fix your attention properly on them and cultivate a practice that conforms to the teachings. Gradually, with the accumulation of the understanding towards the good qualities of the three jewels and contemplation on them, we will be convinced of the three jewels and arouse the true faith and intention of respect. These will be showed in our bodily actions and speech subsequently.
  皈依有三种:对三恶道的苦难感到恐怖,而求靠三宝来解除的,这样子的皈依,是下士道士夫的皈依。对整个生死轮回的苦痛,生起恐怖心,皈求三宝来解除轮回之苦的,是中士道士夫的皈依。对整个有情在轮回中受苦,心生不忍,感到恐怖,而皈投三宝,希望他们都能解脱轮回,得成佛的安乐的,是上士道士夫的皈依。不论是下士道、中士道、上士道,只要发了恐怖心,而希求三宝是唯一能救脱苦难的,都能得到如法的皈依。

There are three kinds of taking refuge. The first is to take refuge to the three jewels to get one out of fear towards miserable realms. Such refuge is taken by the “inferior” persons. Because of fear towards all the transmigration of birth and death, one goes for refuge to the three jewels to liberate one self from the transmigration. Such refuge is taken by the “mediocre” persons. Because of the fear and compassion towards all sentient being in transmigration, one goes for refuge to the three jewels to liberate all sentient beings from transmigration to buddhahood. Such refuge is taken by the “superior” persons. Regardless of inferior, mediocre or superior persons, if they arouse fear and thus go to the three jewels as their sole refuge, they can all get the right refuge.
  再者,从因果两面来说,皈依又可分为两种:一种是因的皈依,一种是果的皈依,而重要的是果上的皈依。为了要解脱自他,脱离生死轮回或恶道之苦,求三宝救度我们,这是因的皈依。为了要解脱自他,出离生死轮回或恶道之苦,而发心赶快使自己证到三宝的果位,这样的皈依,叫果的皈依。我们的要求是通过因的皈依,而达到果的皈依。果的皈依使自己证到三宝的功德,能够广度一切苦难有情,此则与发菩提心极为相似了。正确的修皈依,先应思维皈依因,思维自他轮回三有包括恶趣之苦,及确实知道三宝具有救护一切有情出离一切险恶苦难的能力。皈依之究竟意趣,是为使自己生起能断除自他一切有情烦恼习气之证德,从而解脱自他一切有情之苦报。认识''是引导我们修行的导师,''是正使我们脱离苦难的方法(所修之道)。''是帮助我们修道中的良伴。以这样的猛力信心而修皈依。

Moreover, in the view of cause and effect, there are two types of refuge. The first is refuge of cause, and the second is the refuge of effect. The latter is more important. To liberate self and others from the miserable realms or transmigration, one pray to the three jewels for liberation. Such refuge is called refuge of cause. To liberate self and others from the miserable realms or transmigration, one arouse intention to attain buddhahood as soon as possible. Such refuge is called refuge of effect. We should get the refuge of effect by means of refuge of cause. Refuge of effect enables us to attain the merit of the three jewels and to liberate all the poor sentient beings. Such intention is similar to bodhicitta. Taking refuge properly requires us to contemplate the cause of taking refuge, to contemplate the afflictions and sufferings of self and other in the transmigration, and to be fully aware of the capability of the three jewels to protect all sentient beings from the sufferings. The final aim of taking refuge is to enable self to arouse merit to exterminate the habit energies of afflictions and to liberate self and other from sufferings. We should appreciate the Buddha as the one to guide our practice, the teaching as the method to liberate (i.e., the path we need to practise), and the community as those with whom we should associate on our path. We should practice refuge with such solidified conviction.
  还有一点必须要注意的,有些人以前不知道,学过气功外道的,那么,要皈依的话,一定要把以前学过的外道那一套彻底放下,完全断掉,不能再拖泥带水的夹杂在佛法里边,否则的话,是得不到皈依体的。不论头磕得再多,供养的红包再丰,皈依体是无法生起来的。

Another problem unknown to many before requires our attention. For those who have practice Qigong, they must discard their old method thoroughly before taking refuge. You can not bring them to your present practice. Otherwise, you cannot get or arouse the essence of refuge, no matter how many bows you have made and how much offer you have made.

还有以前虽没有练过气功外道,皈依三宝之后,有什么因缘,譬如说做生意的并没有发财,或者原有病的病并没有好,他就怀疑皈依三宝到底有没有灵感,疑心一起,遇到了外道,甚至信外道去了,练气功,或者求外道做祷告去了,这样子做,果报是很严重的。《地藏十轮经》里有一段文,『谓若有人,或受三皈,或受五戒,于佛法僧,而起疑心,或皈外道,以为师导,或执种种若少若多吉凶之相,祠祭鬼神……如是名为非根本罪,亦非无间,而生极重大罪恶业,近无间罪。』所以说,皈信了三宝之后,绝对不能再去盲目信从外道修什么外道气功之类的法了。近无间罪,就是说这个罪与无间罪是相近,受的苦报也是和无间地狱差不多的。

Some people haven’t practiced Qigong before. After taking refuge, under some condition, for example, when his business is not running well, or he hasn’t recovered from his illness, he will doubt the effect of three jewels. With such doubt, he will turn to the outsiders or even believe in other religions, practice Qigong or pray to outer religions. The effect of these activities is very severe. According to the Ten Cakras of Ksitigarbha, Mahayana Great Collection Sutra, if you have taken the refuge or the five percepts, then you doubt the three jewels or regard outsiders as your teacher, or you pray to the gods or ghosts for superstitious signs…such activities are called not cardinal sins, not heinous crimes, great nonvirtuous karma is aroused, which is similar to heinous crimes. So after taking refuge to the three jewels, we cannot believe in outer religions or Qigong. Similar to heinous crimes, means this sin is similar to, and the subsequent suffering is similar to that in the Avichi hell.

有的人信了三宝,总希望皈依之后立即见效,譬如说他身有病苦,皈依三宝之后,总希望病就很快地消除了。但是实际上皈依三宝,就要明白法宝里的业果缘起,病从何来,大多是过去杀业,伤害众生,不敬三宝,毁谤三宝,不孝父母等等原因而来。皈依三宝之后,得到了加持力,已使你病减轻,依靠法宝,明白善恶业果,断除杀业等害病之源,佛菩萨又慈悲告诉我们很多忏悔方法,依之而行,精勤不撤,必能见效。

Some people believe in three jewels and hope to see immediate result after taking refuge. For example, he may be ill and wish that he can be recovered soon after taking refuge. In fact, if you take refuge in three jewels, you should understand the condition of karma and effect in the Teaching Jewel. Where does the illness come from? Most are because of the karma of killing in the past lives, hurting others, disrespecting three jewels, dispraising three jewels or being unfilial and so on. After taking refuge to three jewels, the bliss you get has eased your illness. By relying on the Teaching Jewel and understanding the virtuous and nonvirtuous karma, you can eliminate the sources of illness such as killing karma. Buddha and bodhisattva also teach us the way to confess and purify with compassion. By practicing the way of purification devotedly, we can view the effect.

皈依三宝,核心是法宝,首先是要明业果,业果是客观的规律,掌握了业果,就知道苦果是由烦恼造恶业而来,乐果是由善心造福而来,无漏解脱果,是从修无漏道得离系果而来。这样你思想行动就有了标准,自行取舍,善的,无漏的要取;恶的要舍,是非常理智,合乎科学的,不是盲目迷信,求鬼拜神,希求奇迹,照这样去做,是解决不了问题的。

The core of relying on three jewels is relying on the Teaching Jewels. First of all, we should understand the karma and effect. Karma and effect is an objective regulation. Once we master the karma and effect, we will know that the suffering comes from the nonvirtuous action which is aroused by affliction, while the happiness comes from merit accumulation by virtuous mind. No-outflow[3] liberation result comes from the obtainment of separation result through practising no-outflow path. So now you have criteria to judge what thought and behavior should be adopted and what should be avoided. Adopt the virtuous and the uncontaminated, avoid the nonvirtuous. This is with reason and accords with science. This is not superstition. Believe in and pray to god or ghost for miracle cannot solve any problem.

 

四、具足皈依之缘证受皈依 Sufficient condition to take refuge— to witness taking refuge


  前面我们已经详细讲了皈依之因,略讲了皈依之缘,因缘和合就产生皈依体。这里我们再把皈依的缘补充一下。

Just now we talk about the cause to take refuge in detail and the condition to take refuge in brief. The essence of refuge is generated by combination of cause and condition. Now we say more about the condition.

前面说缘,我们代你们准备好了,首先是如法的坛场,如法的皈依师,合格的皈依师是要清净持戒的比丘,戒腊高精通律藏或三藏的更好。还有一些,请你们把皈依仪式拿出来看,在皈依之前,要迎请十方的三宝,临降到现前这坛场里来,证明你们受皈依,因为皈依三宝,不只是皈依某个地方,或某个世界的三宝,而是皈依尽虚空界十方所有的佛法僧三宝,都是我们的师父,所以在皈依的时候,要迎请他们来此作证明。有人怀疑,我们这个殿,仅这么大,十方的三宝都来,哪能容纳得下呢?这点请放心,地方大小是凡夫分别心而有的,就理上来说‘一多大小平’,芥子可纳须弥,坐微尘里能转大法轮,理事无碍,这是不思议境界,不必多疑了。

Just now we talked about condition. We have prepared for you. Firstly a proper venue (mandala), proper refuge master, qualified refuge master means bhiksu who observes precepts purely. It is better that he has been a bhiksu for many years or he masters vinaya or even tripitaka well. Please refer to the instruction of the ritual. Before taking refuge, we need to greet the three jewels in ten directions to this present mandala to witness your taking refuge. Because we take refuge not only to the three jewels in a certain place or a certain world, but to all the three jewels in the ten directions, who pervade the Dharma Realms to the ends of empty space. We should take refuge to them all. So when we take the refuge, we greet them to witness. You may wonder that how can our hall accommodate three jewels in ten directions? Don’t worry. Big or small is from the discrepant heart of ordinary people. If one mind of enlightenment is perfectly aroused, big or small obstructions will be removed; and a mustard seed can contain the whole Mountain Sumeru; or sitting one a fine dust but can turn the peerless wheel. The Absolute and phenomena are not mutually exclusive. This is an inconceivable state and we don’t need to doubt.
  迎请降临之后,我们要在十方三宝面前忏悔。无始以来,我们造了很多的罪,起过很多的烦恼,所以我们的身、心都是脏的。身外的脏,可以用水洗干净,起烦恼,造恶业的脏,这不能用水洗净的。过去印度有一种外道,认为到恒河里去洗身,河水能把自己罪业洗干净,这是一种愚昧迷信的想法,真正要把罪业除掉,必须依佛教的正法来如法的忏除。什么叫忏悔?过去造的罪,认识到是不好,也知道将来要入恶趣受苦的,痛切追悔认错,以后发心誓不再犯,这个心,就叫忏悔的心,有了忏悔的心,求佛菩萨慈悲加持,把自己罪障洗涤干净,这是可能的。如果忏悔心没有,不知罪、不知堕,也不防护未来不犯,那这罪是洗不干净的,后来只有自己受苦。现在我们要受皈依,而我们的身、心是那么的脏,成为障碍,这皈依体就很难生起,即使生起也是成为变质,不好的了。所以说,在我们皈依之前,一定要把自己的身心洗涤干净,怎么洗呢?不是用一般的水,或恒河水,而是用忏悔的水洗。要忏悔罪障,对过去做的坏事恶业,自己认识错误,以后绝不再犯。在佛菩萨、三宝面前,至诚三次忏悔,求三宝加持我们,把身上的,心里的罪障洗个干干净净,然后皈依体就能够如法地生起来。打个譬喻,假使烧了最好的饭菜,请你用膳,但碗不洗,舀过大粪的,那么再好的饭菜,吃起来都是臭的;如果这碗是舀过砒霜毒药的,不洗净消毒,则那怕盛的是甘露妙膳,也会把人毒死。所以在正式皈依之前,一定要先忏悔。

After greeting, we should confess sin before the three jewels in ten directions. From beginningless time, we have done a lot of sins and had many afflictions. Thus our body and mind are all dirty. The dirty outside body can be cleaned by water, while the dirty of sins and afflictions cannot be washed by water. There used to be outsiders in India, they believed once they bath in the Ganges River, the river water can clean all their sins. It is foolish and superstitious. To clear all the sins, we must confess the sins according to the teaching. What is confessing? We realize that the sins we have made are nonvirtuous and they will lead us to sufferings in the miserable realms. We must confess sins sincerely and discontinue committing them in the future. This is called confessing. It is possible to clear all our sins with such mind and the compassionate bless from Buddha and Bodhisattva. If we don’t have such mind and are unaware of the sins and the subsequent suffering, nor we discontinue committing, it is impossible to clear the sins and we will suffer in the future. So now we take the refuge, but our body and mind are dirty obstruction for us to get essence of refuge. Even we can get, it will turn bad. So before we take refuge, we must clear our body and mind. How to clear? Neither by using normal water nor using Ganges water. We use the confessing water. We confess our sins and recognize our sins and evil actions we have done, and promise not to commit them again. In front of Buddha, Bodhisattva and three jewels, we confess our sins for three times sincerely, and pray for three jewels’ blessing to clear all our sins in our body and mind and prepare us for the essence of the refuge. For example, even if you cook the best meal, but you put them in a dirty bowl which has been used to scoop excrement before, then no matter how delicious the meal is, it will definitely taste smelly. If the bowl has been used to scoop poison, if you don’t wash it and sterilize it, even if you fill this bowl with sweet dew, it will be noxious and deadly to you. So before taking refuge, you must confess sins.

正受皈依,要三白羯磨,羯磨词就是『尽形寿皈依佛,尽形寿皈依法,尽形寿皈依僧』。说三遍,叫三白羯磨。在白羯磨词时,皈依师白(说)的时候,耳朵一定要听清楚,所以皈依不能写个信就算皈依,一定要人现前,话要听清楚,它的意思要懂,想清楚。而且自己说时,嘴里一定要说清楚。有的人嘴巴动了一下就算说了,没声音,或虽出声而含含糊糊,轻轻地不清楚,都不能得皈依体的。一定要自己嘴很清楚,很有力地说了,说三遍,皈依体就生起了。这要注意、很重要。  

Taking the refuge requires us to recite the Karma verse three times. The Karma verse is “I go for refuge to the Buddha until the exhaustion of my life, I go for refuge to the Dharma (teaching) until the exhaustion of my life, I go for refuge to the Sangha (community) until the exhaustion of my life.” Recite for three times, this is called recite the Karma verse for three times. When doing this, when the refuge master says, you must listen to his words clearly. You cannot take refuge merely by writing a letter. You must be present, hear the words clearly and understand them. When you say the words by self, you must say through mouth clearly. Some people only move the lips a little without making sound or just mumble the words softly and unclearly. They cannot get the essence of refuge. You must say the words clearly and loudly for three times to get the essence of refuge. This is very important.            

 

五、行持皈依学处——别学共学 Observe the precepts of refuge—special precepts and general precepts

 

皈依之后,要好好保护皈依体。皈依体好不容易才生起来,但破坏却是很容易。所以下面的戒条千万要注意:皈依佛之后,宁可牺牲生命,也不要去皈依天魔外道。天魔外道的神庙一求一拜,皈依体就破了,这很严重。受了皈依的人,死掉之后,下一辈子决定生天人;但皈依体破了,信了邪神,命终之后就下恶道去受苦了,何时能出来,说不清的时候。这样一比较,情愿把生命牺牲掉,也不要去皈依天魔外道。很多人皈依之后又去相信外道,前面说过,不但皈依体破了,而且要下近无间地狱受苦的。

After taking refuge, you must protect your essence of refuge. The essence is not easy to get yet very easy to lose. So you must pay attention to the following precepts: after taking the refuge to Buddha, do not go for refuge to the heavenly demons and externalists, even if it costs you your life. Once you bow or pray to the heavenly demons and externalists’ shrine, your essence is destroyed. This is severe. After taking refuge, you will reborn as man or heaven after death. But if your essence of refuge is destroyed and you believe in evil spirit, you will suffer in miserable realms after death and it can’t tell when you can be liberated from the misery. So after comparing them, you would rather die than take refuge to heavenly demons and externalists. Many people believe in heretic after taking refuge, and thus their essence of refuge is destroyed and they will suffer similar in the Avichi hell.

皈依法之后,宁可牺牲生命,也不要相信外道的书、气功师的书等等。更不要去练。

皈依僧之后,宁可牺牲生命,也不要听信外道人的话,不要上他们的当。

皈依之后,一定不能说自己不信佛,不信三宝的话,不管是跟小孩子开玩笑,或有人用刀逼你说,都不能说,否则皈依体同样也破坏了。

After taking refuge to sublime teachings, do not believe in non-Buddhist teachings or Qigong Practitioners’ instruction, nor can you practice them, even if it costs you your life.

After taking refuge to the community, do not believe in non-Buddhist’s or be cheated by them, even if it costs you your life.

After taking refuge, you definitely cannot say the words that you don’t believe in Buddha or you don’t believe in three jewels. No matter if you just mouth the words in jest or you are threatened by someone with a knife, you cannot say that, or your essence of refuge will be destroyed.

皈依三宝之后该怎么做,这是讲行持了。有两种:一、别学,二、共学。

先讲别学:一、皈依佛,永不皈依天神外道,二、皈依法,不恼害一切众生,三、皈依僧,不与外道共住。

皈依三宝前面说过,整个的一切苦难,只有三宝才能救,而你现在又去求天神外道了,那不是跟自己皈依三宝时所发的愿不一样了?当然皈依体就破了。

What should we do after taking refuge? There are two kinds of precepts. The first is called special precepts and the second is called the general precepts.

The special precepts include three points. First, taking refuge to the Buddha, never go to other gods for refuge; second, taking refuge to the teaching, abandon harm and malice toward living beings; third, taking refuge to the community, do not live with non-Buddhist.

We have talked about taking refuge to the three jewels before. Only the three jewels can save us from all the sufferings. Now you turn to other gods or non-Buddhist? This is disobedient to your vow of taking refuge, so your essence of refuge is destroyed.

皈依法,法是什么?是度脱一切众生的,以大悲为体的,我们皈依法之后,就要发心度众生,纵即现在没有能力,还度不了,怎能反去恼害,甚至杀害呢?当然是不行的。

Take refuge to the teaching. What is teaching? It is for the liberation of all sentient beings, and its essence is compassion. After we take the refuge, we should arouse our intention to liberate all sentient beings. Even if we don’t have the capability to liberate them, how can we hurt or even kill them? Of course we cannot do so.

皈依僧,就不能与外道共住。尤其是那些不信三宝、毁谤三宝的那些外道,不能跟他们太亲密,一起住。有人就提出来了,他的父母是信外道的,怎么办呢?总不能跟自己父母分家吧,何况有些人还是靠父母生活的,那么就在信仰上划个界线,不要和合就是了。不过,可以劝父母信佛嘛,如果劝信三宝了,那真是大孝,大报恩了。实际上,跟外道共住,确是有危险性的。

Take refuge to the community, then we cannot live with non-Buddhist. Especially, don’t live with or be too close with those who do not believe in three jewels and dispraise three jewels. Someone may say if his parents are non-Buddhist, then what should he do? You cannot depart from your parents. Moreover, some may still depend on their parents economically. Then you distinguish your belief from theirs and don’t compromise in belief. However, you can persuade your parents to believe in three jewels. Then that is great fealty and great repay. Actually, it is dangerous to live with non-Buddhist.

我在温州就听说有那么一回事。有几位女孩子,都是信佛的,常一起到庙里去念经、听经之类的。后来长大了,其中有一位嫁给一个信天主教的家庭,她以为宗教信仰自由,各信各的,可以和平共处的。伹他们天主教是非常严格,要求家庭成员全都要信天主教,要信佛教根本不可能,哪怕要做一个没有信仰的人都不行,一定要信天主的。结果呢,再三劝她信天主教,她是佛教徒,知道不能皈依天魔外道,她说不信天主,不皈依外道。结果他们就用手腕了,怎么呢?她的公婆两个就睡在床上不动,不吃饭也不起坐,怎么也不动,直熬了三天三夜。不对了!亲戚朋友舆论就来了,说这个媳妇不孝,把公婆弄得三天三夜睡在那里,不吃不动。那样下去,下不了台了,没有办法,逼得她信天主教去了。这就是与外道共住的后果,不能掉以轻心啊!

I heard that in Wenzhou, there were several girls who were Buddhist. They used to go to temple to listen to teachings or chant sutras. After they grow up, one of them married to someone whose family believes in Catholicism. She firstly thought that everyone has the freedom of religion, and they can live together peacefully with different religions. However, the Catholicism is very strict and requires all the family members to believe in Catholicism. It is impossible to be a Buddhist or even without any religion. You must believe in Catholicism. Then the family tried to persuade her to believe in Catholicism. She was a Buddhist and knew that she could not take refuge to heavenly demons and externalists. So she said she could not believe in Catholicism or other religions. Then the family took measure. What did they do? The father-in-law and mother-in-law slept on bed without eating or getting up. They did not move for three days. Then their relatives and friends all came and said that the daughter-in-law was disobedient. Then she had no choice and was forced to believe in Catholicism. This is the result of living with non-Buddhist. Don’t look down on this.

这里产生了个问题,假使一条牛啦,马啦,打了它之后,是否失皈依了?或者开宗教会议,五大宗教徒都有,在开会的时候,在同一宾馆里住,不是也共住了吗?是不是失皈依呢?这些问题,印度和藏地有多种说法,或说六条,或说九条,犯了要失皈依,这六条也好,九条也好,都包的有这三项。

One problem arises. Then do you lose your essence of refuge after whipping an ox or a horse? Or when you attend meetings with disciples of all five main religions, when you attend the meeting or live in the same hotel, you are actually living with them, and then do you lose the essence of refuge? Indian and Tibet Buddhism have many explanations for these problems. There are six or nine precepts, if you contravene, then you forsake your refuge. No matter six or nine, they all include the three.

宗大师的抉择,说有两条是决定不能犯的,其它的呢,犯了之后呢,只是与皈依学处有违犯,不是失去皈依的因,不是当下失皈依。哪两条是不能犯的呢?

Venerable guru Tsong-kha-pa explained that you definitely cannot contravene two precepts. If you contravene others, you only contravene the refuge learning, and it is not the causes of forsaking refuge. You do not forsake your refuge immediately. Then what are the two precepts you cannot contravene?

一、自己把佛法僧舍掉了,不皈依了,不管是什么原因,开玩笑,乃至命难,都不能说,一说舍,就失皈依。

二、虽没有说舍皈依,但认为有外道师、或外道的经书,很了不起,与佛、佛经相等,也失皈依。因初皈依时,认为只有三宝是最高无等的。

First, if you forsake the three jewels, then no matter in what situation, in jest or if it costs you your life, you cannot say forsake the three jewels. If you say so, you forsake the refuge.

Second, if you don’t say that you forsake the refuge, but you think that the non-Buddhism teachers or teachings are as superior as Buddha and teachings, then you forsake the refuge. Because when you take the refuge, you are fully convinced that three jewels are superior and unsurpassed.

前面别学,是在三宝面前,分别应如何作。如皈依佛,应止哪些不能作,皈依法,哪些事不应作,皈依僧,哪些事不应作等。共学则三宝一体的看,在总的三宝面前该怎么作。共学有六:

一、常念三宝殊胜功德。《菩提道次第广论》里广大地详论。佛的功德里边,分身功德,语功德,意功德,及佛所作事业的功德。法的功德,僧的功德,多多思惟,能发强大净心。

二、常念三宝大恩,勤修供养。我们皈依三宝之后,得到三宝大力加持。现前的人身也是过去世皈依三宝,知道发愿求增上生,更加持戒,这些功德具备,才能感到这个暇满的人身,可以听学佛法。三宝的恩,千万不要忘掉,要报三宝的恩。

The special precepts teach us what to do to the three jewels respectively. For example, what are proscriptive if you take refuge to Buddha, what are proscriptive if you take refuge to the teachings, and what are proscriptive if you take refuge to the community? The general precepts take the three jewels as a whole, and teach us what to do before the three jewels. There are six general precepts:

First, recall the good qualities of the three jewels. The details are in the Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment. The good qualities of Buddha include the good qualities of the Buddha’s body, the good qualities of the Buddha’s speech, the good qualities of the Buddha’s mind and the good qualities of the Buddha’s enlightened activities. We should recall the good qualities of the teaching and the community as well, again and again, to arouse our strong and pure mind.

Second, by recalling the great kindness of the three jewels, strive to worship and offer them constantly. We take the refuge and will get the great blessing from the three jewels. Our human body is also gained by our taking refuge to the three jewels, vowing for superior life and following the ethical discipline in the past lives. Our human body of leisure and opportunity is gained by such a way and now prepares us to study Buddha’s teachings. We cannot forget but should repay the great kindness of the three jewels.

『凡诸受用,先当以事、以意恭敬供养』,凡是自己受用的,不管是吃的、用的,穿的等等,都应当以事一一实物供在佛像前,以意一一以恭敬报恩的心奉上供养,或家里没设佛堂,以心观想而供。初皈依的,你们皈依三宝之后,吃饭之前,先把饭菜筷匙放好,合掌,恭恭敬敬地念『嗡、阿、吽』三次。衣服也是,新的衣服未穿之前,先供在佛前供桌上,或者捧在手上,念『嗡、阿、吽』三次。用的东西,不管是温水瓶也好,其他新的家具、用品,没用之前,先供养三宝,念『嗡阿吽』三遍。

All your provision, you should offer respectfully with the resource and mind. All your provision, no matter it is your food, your articles for use, your clothes and alike, you should put the provision in front of the statue of Buddha, and offer with your sincere mind respectfully and gratefully. If you don’t have the Buddha hall at home, you can vision in your mind. If you just take refuge, after taking refuge, you place the food and the cutlery, put your hand together, and then chant the mantra ‘Om Ah Hung’ respectfully for three times. Similarly, you put the new clothes on the table in front of the statue of Buddha before your wearing, or you hold them on hand, and then chant the mantra ‘Om Ah Hung’ for three times. Your article for use, no matter it is a thermos or furniture and alike, before using, you offer it to the three jewels, chanting the mantra ‘Om Ah Hung’ for three times.

这是最简单的供养法,但功效极大。『吽』字的力量,可以把这供品中不干净的完全去掉,化成最干净的。『阿』字的功德,把这世间不殊胜的供品转成最殊胜的色香味触。然后『嗡』字的功德,把这有限的供品,转化成无量无边的普贤功德海云,遍满虚空的那么多。

三、常念悲心,为使一切众生离苦得乐,随分随力,使其他有情也能受皈依。

This is the simplest way to offer, but the effect is great. The power of ‘Hung’ can clear all the dirty from the offer and make the offer most clean. The merit of ‘Ah’ can change the un-superior offer to the most superior offer with best form, smell, taste and feeling. Then the merit of ‘Om’ can make the limited offer to the unlimited cloud of oceans of Noble Excellent Merit, which is as much as the emptiness.

Third, cultivate your compassion. To liberate all sentient beings from suffering to happiness, use your available means to caringly establish other living beings in the practice of going for refuge.

四、凡有兴作,或有所求,皆先呈白现前三宝。要作什么事情,或者有什么求愿,先要呈前现前三宝,一般指依止师罗,是否可以这样做。总之,一切依三宝的教导去做,不要依不顺三宝的世俗,或邪道的方式去做。『除世常事』者,一般经常做的事情就不必要了,譬如说:『我上班去了』,『我吃饭了』,就不必呈白师父了。

Fourth, whatever activity you engage in, and whatever your purpose, firstly you need make offerings and supplications to the three jewels. Whatever activity you engage in, and what ever your purpose, rely on and make offering to the three jewels, usually to your dependence master for their instruction. All in all, do according to the teaching of the three jewels. Do not forsake the three jewels’ instruction and follow other worldly or other religion ways. Except for the routine work, you don’t need to say the normal work to your master, such as “I go to work” or “I eat”.

五、了知三宝殊胜利益,晨夕各作三次皈依。皈依三宝能净罪障,《集学论》云:『若有皈依佛,彼不往恶趣,舍弃人身已,彼当得天身。』皈依法、僧,亦同样说。能集广大福,人与非人不能作难,随欲作何种如法事业,先供养皈依三宝,祈求则易成就,乃至究竟能成佛,有如是等多种利益,故晨夕各作三次皈依。没有规定早晚课,就用皈依,再加四宏誓愿,晨夕各三次,这是最简单的早晚课了。

Fifth, after you have understood the benefits, go for refuge three times in the day and three times at night. Taking refuge can reduce and eliminate previously accumulated karmic obstructions. The Compendium of Training says: “Those who go for refuge to the Buddha do not go to the miserable realms. After giving up human form, they assume the bodies of god.” The same teaching applies to taking refuge in the teaching and the community. You will accumulate vast merit. You will not be thwarted by human or nonhuman hindrances. Before undertaking an activity according to the teaching, you make offerings to the three jewels, go for refuge and then pray to succeed. You will easily accomplish it and further become Buddhahood in the end. So you should go for refuge three times in the day and three times at night. If you don’t have regular practices at dawn and at dusk, then you recite the three refuge and the four vast vows, three times at dawn and three times at dusk. This is the simplest practices.

六、守护三宝,如人爱命,下至戏笑,乃至命难因缘,亦不舍离三宝。前面已讲过,我们要保护好皈依体,比自己生命还要重要的看待。一天到晚,要把皈依三宝的念头记住,不要忘失,更不能舍掉。对佛弟子来说,三宝是最重要的,身外财产,到命终时,一分也带不走,亲戚朋友,一个也带不走,连自己的身体也没法带走。只有三宝的功德可以牢牢跟著你,不管你到哪里,总是跟你不舍离的。这是对我们切身利益的事情。一定要很慎重的对待。

Sixth, maintain your refuge and do not forsake the three jewels, even in jest or if it costs you your life. We have said that before. We must protect the refuge and treasure it more than our life. You should recall the refuge to three jewels from day to night. You cannot forget or even forsake the refuge. To a Buddhist, three jewels are most important. None of your belongings can be brought with you when you die. Nor one of your relatives and your friends, or even your own body. Only the merit of three jewels can be with you. No matter where you are, it will not depart from you. This is our benefit and it worth our careful treatment.

佛是皈依大师,僧是皈依正行助伴,正皈依的核心是法宝。能依法宝,才能解脱怖畏苦难。故初修业人,应当善巧善不善业及其果的差别,如理取舍而修正行,能明白业果。《广论》说:『若于业果,或决定相,或无欺罔,获定解者,是为一切内佛弟子所有正见,赞为一切白法根本。』皈依三宝之后,接著应做的,就是明白善恶业果了。希望大家于此努力。

Buddha is the one who teaches refuge, the community assists you in accomplishing refuge, but the real refuge is the jewel of the teaching, because once you have relied on it, you are liberated from fear. So the beginning practitioners should master the classifications of virtue and nonvirtue, as well as their results. Then you properly cast aside the nonvirtuous and adopt the virtuous, practice correctly and understand the karma and effect. The Great Treatise on the Stages of the Path to Enlightenment says: “attaining certain knowledge of the definiteness, or nondeceptiveness, of karma and its effects is called the correct viewpoint for all Buddhists and is praised as the foundation of all virtues.” After taking refuge, the next step is to know the karma and effect of virtue and nonvirtue. I hope you can take effort in this.

 

附录:恭敬法宝注意事项

 

《金刚经》上说:『凡经典所在之处,即为有佛。』所以经典是佛的法身所在之处,助印经书、流通经书、阅读经书、恭敬经书皆可启发无限智慧,但若对经书不恭敬,也能令堕不如意处。下面略举数条,以供参考。

一、佛经法宝须放置于洁净高燥之处。

二、佛经法宝所在之处不可做诸污秽行为。

三、佛经法宝不可露置。不可跨越践踏。不可与秽物杂置。亦不可安置在床上、坐椅上、拜垫上等不净处。

四、佛经法宝须置于其它书籍之上。其层次大致如下:原文经典,经典浅释,一般佛    书,圣贤言论,教化书籍。

五、若书房和睡房是同一房间,睡觉时应用干净的布将经书盖上,且要安置在头的一    (限单身净房)

六、佛经法宝须用双手捧。携提须高于脐之上。不可挟于腋下。

七、手捧经书经过佛像,及遇大德上座等,以上举经书为礼。

八、阅读佛经,须先净手。若中间手触不净之物,如脐以下衣,均须毛巾揩手令净。

九、阅读佛经应专注一心。若有杂念应合上佛经,待念去再阅。因事停阅亦应合上。

十、对经如对佛,不得戏笑。不得对经谈说世事,讲说杂话,或边吃东西边看经书。

十一、佛经上不得涂写。

十二、不得口吹经上尘,以专用净布拭去。

十三、经案上不可放置杂物。外书等不可放于内典之上。不得案上卷帙纵横失次。

十四、不可躺著看经。

十五、佛经法宝不可烧毁,若有损坏应速修补。若自己不阅,应转送他人广加流传。不可不加爱惜,又不肯流传。

十六、佛经法宝不可执此轻彼,愚迷毁谤。

十七、佛经法宝不可货卖,质当取利。

十八、佛经法宝不可断章取义,增删伪乱。

凡是佛经法宝,均应恭敬如佛。不恭敬法宝,即不恭敬佛。以自三门,毁谤三宝。造作罪业,与出佛身血等。『亦当堕于无间地狱,千万亿劫,求出无期』。切记此一经文,恭敬三宝,恭敬经典。

 

 

 

 

                   回向偈

 

    愿以此功德  回向遍一切

    吾与诸众生  罪障尽除灭

    根支三昧耶  诸戒有缺犯

    仗法真实力  雪除还清净

    上师胜金刚  诸佛体性主

    愿一切时处  以悲心覆护

    启迪除愚蒙  速圆无上觉

    持教拔沉迷  安住于佛心

 

 

 

 



[1] “Three miserable realms” means “three evil paths, i.e. hell, ghost and animal”.

[2] “Arising of condition” , another translation is “dependent arising”

[3]No-outflow” means “uncontaminated”.

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类别:汉藏巴译英 | 2009-06-06 
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  本文最新评论 共( 5)条 察看所有评论
2009/6/10 14:27:36 xiaoxiaocao (未注册网友) Mail:cori.cao@unilever.com
师兄好,此译文翻译中的佛教关键术语如‘三宝’,‘皈依’等都是严格沿用美国雪狮出版社(Snow Lion Publications
  Ithaca, New York)出版的英文版《菩提道次第广论》(THE GREAT TREATISE ON THE STAGES OF THE PATH TO ENLIGHTENMENT),如皈依三宝,该书译为‘Go for Refuge to the Three Jewels’而非您所改的‘take refuge in the Three Treasures’,其他词汇类推。由于本人母语非英语,加之水平有限,故译文不流畅,让老外看了有不舒服的地方在所难免,故如有机会以后请母语为英文的美国人校对一下是很有必要的。
  
  英文版广论PDF文件可通过以下方法下载。
  登录http://mail.cn.yahoo.com
  电子邮箱:yuanmanputixin@yahoo.com.cn
  密码: China1234
  从收件箱中下载这些资料。
  
  多谢指教。
2009/6/8 16:33:59 alphone Mail:alphone@163.net
唔,又改了一下:
  
  To enter the door of the Three Treasures, first of all, we must take refuge in the Three Treasures. Before taking the refuge, all of us have accumulated myriad karma because of our desires and illusions. Because we have accumulated myriad karma, we suffer by reincarnating repeatedly within the Six Paths. From the Beginninglessness, we have been reincarnating in this way again and again, and therefore have been suffering from countless afflictions. So if we wish not to suffer any more, what should we do? The answer is: We must rely on the Three Treasures. Relying on the power of the Three Treasures, we can escape from the miserable sea of transmigration. This is called taking refuge in the Three Treasures.
2009/6/8 16:23:51 alphone Mail:alphone@163.net
师兄您好,
  
  此译文似不甚通顺,可能会令老外不知所云。在下试着改译了一段,供师兄参考:
  
  
  我们要进入三宝之门,首先就是要皈依三宝为入门之法了,我们没有皈依以前,大家都根据自己的烦恼去造业,造了业就在六道轮回里边受苦,这样子反反复复,无始以来我们不知已受了多少苦。如果我们再不想受苦了,那么该怎么办呢?这就必须要依靠三宝了。依靠三宝的力量,使我跳出这个轮回的苦海,这个就叫做『皈依』。
  
  To enter the door of the Three Treasures, first of all, we must take refuge in the Three Treasures. Before taking the refuge, all of us have accumulated myriad karma because of our desires and illusions. Because we have accumulated myriad karma, we suffer by reincarnating repeatedly within the Six Paths. From the Beginningless, we have been reincarnating in this way again and again, and therefore have been suffering from countless afflictions. So if we wish not to suffer any more, what should we do? The answer is: We must rely on the Three Treasures. Relying on the power of the Three Treasures, we can escape the miserable sea of transmigration. This is called taking refuge in the Three Treasures.
  
  
  
  
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